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Who pays the taxes?

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Author Info

  • C. A. de Kam
  • J. de Haan
  • C. Giles
  • A. Manresa
  • E. Berenguer
  • S. Calonge
  • J. Merz

    ()
    (LEUPHANA University Lüneburg,Department of Economic, Behaviour and Law Sciences, Research Institute on Professions (Forschungsinstitut Freie Berufe (FFB)))

Abstract

The European Union is legally entitled to the revenue from (1) agricultural and sugar levies, (2) customs duties, (3) a 1 percent rate on each Member States' value added tax base, and (4) a resource on the basis of GNP. Currently, the Union is actively involved in the search for a fifth own revenue source. Therefore, the European Commission (DG XIX) has invited the authors to trace 'who pays the taxes'. As requested, our report gives a general account of methods to investigate impacts of taxation. More specifically, we have estimated the incidence of national tax systems (Germany, the Netherlands, Spain and the United Kingdom), and the incidence of present own resources and prospective new (tax) resources of the European Union. Up till now, such information was not (readily) available.

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File URL: http://www.leuphana.de/fileadmin/user_upload/Forschungseinrichtungen/ffb/files/publikationen/diskussion/DP_18_taxes.pdf
File Function: First version, 1996
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Research Institute on Professions (Forschungsinstitut Freie Berufe (FFB)), LEUPHANA University Lüneburg in its series FFB-Discussionpaper with number 18.

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Length: 89 pages
Date of creation: Jul 1996
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:leu:wpaper:18

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Web page: http://ffb.uni-lueneburg.de/repec/leu/
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Keywords: tax incidence in the European Union; prospective new EU tax resources;

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References

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  1. Knoester, Anthonie & van der Windt, Nico, 1987. "Real Wages and Taxation in Ten OECD Countries," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 49(1), pages 151-69, February.
  2. Bentolila, Samuel & Dolado, Juan J., 1993. "Who Are the Insiders? Wage Setting in Spanish Manufacturing Firms," CEPR Discussion Papers 754, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  3. Joachim Merz, 1995. "MICSIM - Concept, Developments and Applications of a PC-Microsimulation Model for Research and Teaching," FFB-Discussionpaper 14, Research Institute on Professions (Forschungsinstitut Freie Berufe (FFB)), LEUPHANA University Lüneburg.
  4. repec:sae:niesru:v:145:y::i:1:p:87-107 is not listed on IDEAS
  5. Burkhauser, Richard V & Smeeding, Timothy M & Merz, Joachim, 1996. "Relative Inequality and Poverty in Germany and the United States Using Alternative Equivalence Scales," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 42(4), pages 381-400, December.
  6. Joachim Merz, 1994. "Microsimulation - A Survey of Methods and Applications for Analyzing Economic and Social Policy," FFB-Discussionpaper 09, Research Institute on Professions (Forschungsinstitut Freie Berufe (FFB)), LEUPHANA University Lüneburg.
  7. Nickell, Stephen & Wadhwani, Sushil B, 1989. "Insider Forces and Wage Determination," CEPR Discussion Papers 310, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  8. Wallis, Kenneth F, 1993. "On Macroeconomic Policy and Macroeconometric Models," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 69(205), pages 113-30, June.
  9. Layard, Richard & Nickell, Stephen & Jackman, Richard, 2005. "Unemployment: Macroeconomic Performance and the Labour Market," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199279173, September.
  10. Barthold, Thomas A., 1993. "How Should We Measure Distribution?," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 46(3), pages 291-99, September.
  11. de Kam, C. A. & de Haan, J. & Giles, C. & Manresa, A. & Berenguer, E. & Calonge, S. & Merz, J. & Venkatarama, K., 1996. "The distribution of effective tax burdens in four EU countries," MPRA Paper 7144, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  12. repec:sae:niesru:v:137:y::i:1:p:59-74 is not listed on IDEAS
  13. Kehoe, Timothy J. & Noyola, Pedro Javier & Manresa, Antonio & Polo, Clemente & Sancho, Ferran, 1988. "A general equilibrium analysis of the 1986 tax reform in Spain," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 32(2-3), pages 334-342, March.
  14. Dolado, J J & Malo de Molina, J L & Zabalza, A, 1986. "Spanish Industrial Unemployment: Some Explanatory Factors," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 53(210(S)), pages S313-34, Supplemen.
  15. repec:sae:niesru:v:133:y::i:1:p:91-115 is not listed on IDEAS
  16. Merz, Joachim, 1991. "Microsimulation -- A survey of principles, developments and applications," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 77-104, May.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Joachim Merz & Peter Paic, 2006. "New microeconometric evidence from the German Socio-Economic Panel," FFB-Discussionpaper 56, Research Institute on Professions (Forschungsinstitut Freie Berufe (FFB)), LEUPHANA University Lüneburg.
  2. Merz, Joachim & Lang*, Rainer, 1997. "Preferred vs. Actual Working Hours - A Ten Years Paneleconometric Analysis for Professions, Entrepreneurs and Employees in Germany," MPRA Paper 11905, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  3. Joachim Merz, 1993. "Market and Non-market Labor Supply and Recent German Tax Reform Impacts - Behavioral Response in a Combined Dynamic and Static Microsimulation Model," FFB-Discussionpaper 06, Research Institute on Professions (Forschungsinstitut Freie Berufe (FFB)), LEUPHANA University Lüneburg.
  4. Merz, Joachim & Vorgrimler, Daniel & Zwick, Markus, 2006. "De facto anonymised microdata file on income tax statistics 1998," MPRA Paper 5740, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  5. Sara Torregrosa Hetland, 2014. "A fiscal revolution? Progressivity in the Spanish tax system, 1960-1990," Working Papers 2014/8, Institut d'Economia de Barcelona (IEB).
  6. Fehr, Hans, 1999. "Welfare Effects of Dynamic Tax Reforms," Beiträge zur Finanzwissenschaft, Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, edition 1, volume 5, number urn:isbn:9783161470165, July.
  7. Joachim Merz & Thorsten Quiel & Kshama Venkatarama, 1998. "Wer bezahlt die Steuern? Steuerbelastung und Einkommenssituation von Freien und anderen Berufen," FFB-Discussionpaper 24, Research Institute on Professions (Forschungsinstitut Freie Berufe (FFB)), LEUPHANA University Lüneburg.
  8. Joachim Merz & Derik Burgert, 2003. "Working Hour Arrangements and Working Hours - A Microeconometric Analysis Based on German Time Diary Data," FFB-Discussionpaper 41, Research Institute on Professions (Forschungsinstitut Freie Berufe (FFB)), LEUPHANA University Lüneburg.

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