Inequality of Educational Opportunity in India: Changes over Time and across States
AbstractThis paper documents the extent of inequality of educational opportunity in India spanning the period 1983-2004 using National Sample Survey (NSS) data. We build on recent developments in the literature that has operationalized concepts in the inequality of opportunity theory (including Roemer's) and construct three indices of inequality of educational opportunity using data on an adult sample. Irrespective of the index used, the state of Kerala stands out as the least unequal in terms of educational opportunities. However, even after excluding Kerala, significant inter-state divergence remains amongst the remaining states. Transition matrix analysis confirms substantial inter-temporal mobility in inequality of opportunity across Indian states. Rajasthan and Gujarat in the West and Uttar Pradesh and Bihar in the Centre experienced large-scale fall in the ranking of inequality of opportunities. However, despite being poor, Eastern states of West Bengal and Orissa made significant progress in reducing inequality of opportunity. At a region level, Southern, North-eastern and Eastern regions on average experienced upward mobility (i.e. decline in inequality of opportunity) whilst the Central region experienced downward mobility. We conclude by examining the link between progress towards equality of opportunity and poverty reduction, growth and a selection of pro-poor policies.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 5146.
Length: 34 pages
Date of creation: Aug 2010
Date of revision:
Publication status: published in: World Development, 2012, 40 (6), 1151–1163
Contact details of provider:
Postal: IZA, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany
Phone: +49 228 3894 223
Fax: +49 228 3894 180
Web page: http://www.iza.org
Postal: IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany
Other versions of this item:
- Asadullah, M. Niaz & Yalonetzky, Gaston, 2012. "Inequality of Educational Opportunity in India: Changes Over Time and Across States," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 40(6), pages 1151-1163.
- D63 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics - - - Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement
- O53 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Asia including Middle East
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2010-09-11 (All new papers)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Fleurbaey, Marc, 2012.
"Fairness, Responsibility, and Welfare,"
Oxford University Press, number 9780199653591.
- Foster, James E. & Shneyerov, Artyom A., 2000. "Path Independent Inequality Measures," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 91(2), pages 199-222, April.
- Checchi, Daniele & Peragine, Vito, 2005. "Regional Disparities and Inequality of Opportunity: The Case of Italy," IZA Discussion Papers 1874, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Gaston Yalonetzky, 2009. "Comparing Economic Mobility with Heterogeneity Indices: an Application to Education in Peru," OPHI Working Papers ophiwp033, Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford.
- Lefranc, A. & Pistolesi, Nicolas & Trannoy, Alain, 2005.
"Inequality of opportunities vs inequality of outcomes: are western societies all alike?,"
ISER Working Paper Series
2005-15, Institute for Social and Economic Research.
- Arnaud Lefranc & Nicolas Pistolesi & Alain Trannoy, 2008. "Inequality Of Opportunities Vs. Inequality Of Outcomes: Are Western Societies All Alike?," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 54(4), pages 513-546, December.
- Arnaud Lefranc & Nicolas Pistolesi & Alain Trannoy, 2006. "Inequality of opportunities vs. inequality of outcomes: Are Western societies all alike?," Working Papers 54, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
- Thomas, Vinod & Wang, Yan & Fan, Xibo, 2001. "Measuring education inequality - Gini coefficients of education," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2525, The World Bank.
- Fields, Gary S. & Ok, Efe A., 1996. "The Meaning and Measurement of Income Mobility," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 71(2), pages 349-377, November.
- Jere Behrman R. & Alejandro Gavieria Uribe & Miguel Szekely Sánchez, 2001.
"Intergenerational Mobility in Latin America,"
WORKING PAPERS SERIES. DOCUMENTOS DE TRABAJO
- Gaston Yalonetzky, 2012. "A dissimilarity index of multidimensional inequality of opportunity," Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer, vol. 10(3), pages 343-373, September.
- Sean Dougherty & Richard Herd, 2008. "Improving Human Capital Formation in India," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 625, OECD Publishing.
- Dahan, Momi & Gaviria, Alejandro, 2001. "Sibling Correlations and Intergenerational Mobility in Latin America," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 49(3), pages 537-54, April.
- Ferreira , Francisco H. G. & Gignoux, Jeremie, 2008.
"The measurement of inequality of opportunity : theory and an application to Latin America,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
4659, The World Bank.
- Francisco H. G. Ferreira & Jérémie Gignoux, 2011. "The Measurement Of Inequality Of Opportunity: Theory And An Application To Latin America," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 57(4), pages 622-657, December.
- Gabriela Schütz & Heinrich Ursprung & Ludger Woessmann, 2005.
"Education Policy and Equality of Opportunity,"
CESifo Working Paper Series
1518, CESifo Group Munich.
- Geeta Gandhi Kingdon, 2007.
"The progress of school education in India,"
Economics Series Working Papers
GPRG-WPS-071, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
- Leonardo C. Gasparini, 2002. "On the measurement of unfairness An application to high school attendance in Argentina," Social Choice and Welfare, Springer, vol. 19(4), pages 795-810.
- Nazmul Chaudhury & Jeffrey Hammer & Michael Kremer & Karthik Muralidharan & F. Halsey Rogers, 2006. "Missing in Action: Teacher and Health Worker Absence in Developing Countries," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 20(1), pages 91-116, Winter.
- repec:pri:rpdevs:184 is not listed on IDEAS
- Peter Lanjouw & Rinku Murgai, 2009.
"Poverty decline, agricultural wages, and nonfarm employment in rural India: 1983-2004,"
International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 40(2), pages 243-263, 03.
- Lanjouw, Peter & Murgai, Rinku, 2009. "Poverty decline, agricultural wages, and non-farm employment in rural India : 1983-2004," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4858, The World Bank.
- Ashwini Deshpande, 2007. "Overlapping Identities under Liberalization: Gender and Caste in India," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 55, pages 735-760.
- Gaston Yalonetzky, 2010. "A Dissimilarity Index of Multidimensional Inequality of Opportunity (Revised and Updated)," OPHI Working Papers ophiwp0039, Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford.
- Sen, Amartya, 2001. "Development as Freedom," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780192893307.
- Sonalde Desai & Veena Kulkarni, 2008. "Changing educational inequalities in india in the context of affirmative action," Demography, Springer, vol. 45(2), pages 245-270, May.
- Azam, Mehtabul & Bhatt, Vipul, 2012. "Like Father, Like Son? Intergenerational Education Mobility in India," IZA Discussion Papers 6549, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Sripad Motiram & Ashish Singh, 2012.
"How close does the apple fall to the tree? Some evidence on intergenerational occupational mobility from India,"
Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai Working Papers
2012-017, Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai, India.
- Motiram, Sripad & Singh, Ashish, 2012. "How Close Does the Apple Fall to the Tree? Some Evidence on Intergenerational Occupational Mobility from India," Working Paper Series UNU-WIDER Research Paper , World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
- Ashish Singh, 2011. "Gender based intra-household inequality of opportunity in academic skills among Indian children," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 31(3), pages 2333-2346.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Fallak).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.