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Measuring education inequality - Gini coefficients of education

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  • Thomas, Vinod
  • Wang, Yan
  • Fan, Xibo

Abstract

The authors use a Gini index to measure inequality in educational attainment. They present two methods (direct and indirect) for calculating an education Gini index, and generate a quinquennial data set on education Gini indexes for the over-15-population in 85 countries (1960-90). Preliminary empirical analysis suggests that: 1) Inequality in education in most of the countries declined over the three decades, with a few exceptions. 2) Inequality in education as measured by the education Gini index is negatively associated with average years of schooling, implying that countries with higher educational attainment are more likely to achieve equality in education, than those with lower attainment. 3) A clear pattern of an education Kuznets curve exists if the standard deviation of education is used. 4) Gender gaps are clearly related to education inequality, and over time, the association between gender gaps, and inequality becomes stronger. 5) Increases in per capita GDP (adjusted for purchasing power parity) seem to be negatively associated with education inequality, and positively related to labor force's average years of schooling, after controlling for initial income levels.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 2525.

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Date of creation: 31 Jan 2001
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Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:2525

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Keywords: Curriculum&Instruction; Teaching and Learning; Gender and Education; Education and Society; Primary Education;

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  1. Anand, Sudhir & Kanbur, S. M. R., 1993. "The Kuznets process and the inequality--development relationship," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 25-52, February.
  2. Kuznets, Simon, 1976. " Demographic Aspects of the Size Distribution of Income: An Exploratory Essay," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 25(1), pages 1-94, October.
  3. Hongyi Li & Lyn Squire & Heng-fu Zou, 1998. "Explaining International and Intertemporal Variations in Income Inequality," CEMA Working Papers 73, China Economics and Management Academy, Central University of Finance and Economics.
  4. Lopez, Ramon & Thomas, Vinod & Yan Wang, 1998. "Addressing the education puzzle : the distribution of education and economic reform," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2031, The World Bank.
  5. Lam, David & Levison, Deborah, 1991. "Declining inequality in schooling in Brazil and its effects on inequality in earnings," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(1-2), pages 199-225, November.
  6. Oded Galor & Joseph Zeira, 2013. "Income Distribution and Macroeconomics," Working Papers 2013-12, Brown University, Department of Economics.
  7. Ravallion, Martin & Datt, Gaurav, 1999. "When is growth pro-poor? Evidence from the diverse experiences of India's states," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2263, The World Bank.
  8. Komen, Marinus H.C. & Gerking, Shelby & Folmer, Henk, 1997. "Income and environmental R D: empirical evidence from OECD countries," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 2(04), pages 505-515, November.
  9. Quan, Nguyen T. & Koo, Anthony Y. C., 1985. "Concentration of land holdings : An empirical exploration of Kuznets' conjecture," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 101-117.
  10. Galor, Oded & Tsiddon, Daniel, 1996. "Income Distribution and Growth: The Kuznets Hypothesis Revisited," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 63(250), pages S103-17, Suppl..
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