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Optimal Monetary Policy with Endogenous Entry and Product Variety

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  • Florin O. Bilbiie

    (Assistant Professor, Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne, Maison des Sciences Economiques and CEPR (E-mail: florin.bilbiie@parisschoolofeconomics.eu))

  • Ippei Fujiwara

    (Director and Senior Economist, Financial Markets Department, Bank of Japan (E-mail: ippei.fujiwara@boj.or.jp))

  • Fabio Ghironi

    (Associate Professor, Boston College and NBER (E-mail: Fabio.Ghironi@bc.edu))

Abstract

We show that deviations from long-run stability of product prices are optimal in the presence of endogenous producer entry and product variety in a sticky-price model with monopolistic competition in which price stability would be optimal in the absence of entry. Specifically, a long-run positive (negative) rate of inflation is optimal when the benefit of variety to consumers falls short of (exceeds) the market incentives for creating that variety under flexible prices, governed by the desired markup. Plausible preference specifications and parameter values justify a long-run inflation rate of two percent or higher. Price indexation implies even larger deviations from long-run price stability. However, price stability (around this non-zero trend) is close to optimal in the short run, even in the presence of time-varying flexible-price markups that distort the allocation of resources across time and states. The central bank uses its leverage over real activity in the long run, but not in the short run. Our results point to the need for continued empirical research on the determinants of markups and investigation of the benefit of product variety to consumers.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Institute for Monetary and Economic Studies, Bank of Japan in its series IMES Discussion Paper Series with number 11-E-21.

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Date of creation: Sep 2011
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Handle: RePEc:ime:imedps:11-e-21

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Keywords: Entry; Optimal Inflation Rate; Price Stability; Product Variety; Ramsey-Optimal Monetary Policy;

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References

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  1. Florin O. Bilbiie & Fabio Ghironi & Marc J. Melitz, 2012. "Endogenous Entry, Product Variety, and Business Cycles," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 120(2), pages 304 - 345.
  2. Isabel Correia & Juan Pablo Nicolini & Pedro Teles, 2002. "Optimal fiscal and monetary policy: equivalence results," Working Paper Series WP-02-16, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  3. Pierpaolo Benigno & Michael Woodford, 2004. "Inflation Stabilization and Welfare: The Case of a Distorted Steady State," NBER Working Papers 10838, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Roberto M. Billi, 2007. "Optimal inflation for the U.S," Research Working Paper RWP 07-03, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City.
  5. Fabio Ghironi & Sanjay K. Chugh, 2010. "Optimal Fiscal Policy with Endogenous Product Variety," 2010 Meeting Papers 812, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  6. Sanjay K. Chugh, 2006. "Optimal Fiscal and Monetary Policy with Sticky Wages and Sticky Prices," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 9(4), pages 683-714, October.
  7. Arseneau, David M. & Chugh, Sanjay K., 2008. "Optimal fiscal and monetary policy with costly wage bargaining," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(8), pages 1401-1414, November.
  8. Kim, Jinill & Ruge-Murcia, Francisco J., 2009. "How much inflation is necessary to grease the wheels?," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(3), pages 365-377, April.
  9. Robert J. Gordon, 2006. "The Boskin Commission Report: A Retrospective One Decade Later," International Productivity Monitor, Centre for the Study of Living Standards, vol. 12, pages 7-22, Spring.
  10. Carlos Thomas, 2006. "Search and Matching Frictions and Optimal Monetary Policy," CEP Discussion Papers dp0743, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  11. Adao, Bernardino & Correia, Maria Isabel Horta & Teles, Pedro, 2001. "Gaps and Triangles," CEPR Discussion Papers 2668, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  12. Florin O. Bilbiie & Fabio Ghironi & Marc J. Melitz, 2008. "Monopoly Power and Endogenous Product Variety: Distortions and Remedies," NBER Working Papers 14383, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. Siu, Henry E., 2004. "Optimal fiscal and monetary policy with sticky prices," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(3), pages 575-607, April.
  14. Vivien Lewis, 2009. "Optimal monetary policy and firm entry," Working Paper Research 178, National Bank of Belgium.
  15. Ester Faia, 2009. "Oligopolistic Competition and Optimal Monetary Policy," Kiel Working Papers 1552, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
  16. Benassy, Jean-Pascal, 1991. "Monopolistic competition," Handbook of Mathematical Economics, in: W. Hildenbrand & H. Sonnenschein (ed.), Handbook of Mathematical Economics, edition 1, volume 4, chapter 37, pages 1997-2045 Elsevier.
  17. Florin O. Bilbiie & Fabio Ghironi & Marc J. Melitz, 2008. "Monetary Policy and Business Cycles with Endogenous Entry and Product Variety," NBER Chapters, in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 2007, Volume 22, pages 299-353 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  18. Faia, Ester, 2009. "Ramsey monetary policy with labor market frictions," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(4), pages 570-581, May.
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Cited by:
  1. Sanjay K. Chugh & Fabio Ghironi, 2012. "Optimal Fiscal Policy with Endogenous Product Variety," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 845, Boston College Department of Economics.
  2. Matteo Cacciatore & Giuseppe Fiori & Fabio Ghironi, 2013. "Market Deregulation and Optimal Monetary Policy in a Monetary Union," NBER Working Papers 19025, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Faia, Ester, 2012. "Oligopolistic competition and optimal monetary policy," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 36(11), pages 1760-1774.
  4. Lewis, Vivien & Poilly, Céline, 2012. "Firm entry, markups and the monetary transmission mechanism," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(7), pages 670-685.
  5. Ippei Fujiwara & Yuki Teranishi, 2013. "Financial Stability in Open Economies," CAMA Working Papers 2013-71, Centre for Applied Macroeconomic Analysis, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University.
  6. Matteo Cacciatore, 2013. "Trade, Unemployment, and Monetary Policy," 2013 Meeting Papers 724, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  7. Weber, Henning, 2013. "Learning By Doing in New Firms and the Optimal Rate of Inflation," Annual Conference 2013 (Duesseldorf): Competition Policy and Regulation in a Global Economic Order 79761, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
  8. Vivien Lewis, 2009. "Optimal monetary policy and firm entry," Working Paper Research 178, National Bank of Belgium.
  9. Masashige Hamano & Pierre M. Picard, 2013. "Extensive and intensive margins and the choice of exchange rate regimes," CREA Discussion Paper Series 13-18, Center for Research in Economic Analysis, University of Luxembourg.
  10. Henning Weber, 2012. "The Optimal Inflation Rate and Firm-Level Productivity Growth," Kiel Working Papers 1773, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.

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