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Specifying the Forecast Generating Process for Exchange Rate Survey Forecasts

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Author Info

  • Richard H. Cohen

    ()
    (College of Business and Public Policy, University of Alaska Anchorage)

  • Carl Bonham

    ()
    (Department of Economics and University of Hawaii Economic Research Organization, University of Hawaii at Manoa)

Abstract

This paper contributes to the literature on the modeling of survey forecasts using learning variables. We use individual industry data on yen-dollar exchange rate predictions at the two week, three month, and six month horizons supplied by the Japan Center for International Finance. Compared to earlier studies, our focus is not on testing a single type of learning model, whether univariate or mixed, but on searching over many types of learning models to determine if any are congruent. In addition to including the standard expectational variables (adaptive, extrapolative, and regressive), we also include a set of interactive variables which allow for lagged dependence of one industry’s forecast on the others. Our search produces a remarkably small number of congruent specifications-even when we allow for 1) a flexible lag specification, 2) endogenous break points and 3) an expansion of the initial list of regressors to include lagged dependent variables and use a General-to-Specific modeling strategy. We conclude that, regardless of forecasters’ ability to produce rational forecasts, they are not only “different,” but different in ways that cannot be adequately represented by learning models.

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File URL: http://www.economics.hawaii.edu/research/workingpapers/WP_07-18.pdf
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Economics in its series Working Papers with number 200718.

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Length: 29 pages
Date of creation: 25 Jul 2007
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:hai:wpaper:200718

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Keywords: Learning Models; Exchange Rate; Survey Forecasts;

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References

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  1. BAI, Jushan & PERRON, Pierre, 1998. "Computation and Analysis of Multiple Structural-Change Models," Cahiers de recherche 9807, Universite de Montreal, Departement de sciences economiques.
  2. Jeffrey A. Frankel & Kenneth A. Froot, 1985. "Using Survey Data to Test Some Standard Propositions Regarding Exchange Rate Expectations," NBER Working Papers 1672, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. John Faust & Charles H. Whiteman, 1997. "General-to-specific procedures for fitting a data-admissible, theory- inspired, congruent, parsimonious, encompassing, weakly-exogenous, identified, structural model to the DGP: a translation and crit," International Finance Discussion Papers 576, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  4. Jacques Mairesse & Zvi Griliches, 1988. "Heterogeneity in Panel Data: Are There Stable Production Functions?," NBER Working Papers 2619, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Frankel, Jeffrey A & Froot, Kenneth A, 1986. "Understanding the U.S. Dollar in the Eighties: The Expectations of Chartists and Fundamentalists," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 0(0), pages 24-38, Supplemen.
  6. Jushan Bai & Pierre Perron, 1998. "Estimating and Testing Linear Models with Multiple Structural Changes," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 66(1), pages 47-78, January.
  7. Batchelor, Roy A. & Dua, Pami, 1990. "Product differentiation in the economic forecasting industry," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 6(3), pages 311-316, October.
  8. David Laster & Paul Bennett & In Sun Geoum, 1999. "Rational Bias In Macroeconomic Forecasts," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 114(1), pages 293-318, February.
  9. Cavaglia, Stefano & Verschoor, Willem F. C. & Wolff, Christian C. P., 1993. "Further evidence on exchange rate expectations," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 78-98, February.
  10. Ralph C. Bryant, . "The "Exchange Risk Premium," Uncovered Interest Parity, and the Treatment of Exchange Rates in Multicountry Macroeconomic Models," Discussion Papers 111, Brookings Institution International Economics.
  11. Frankel, Jeffrey A & Froot, Kenneth A, 1987. "Using Survey Data to Test Standard Propositions Regarding Exchange Rate Expectations," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 77(1), pages 133-53, March.
  12. Hansen, Lars Peter & Hodrick, Robert J, 1980. "Forward Exchange Rates as Optimal Predictors of Future Spot Rates: An Econometric Analysis," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 88(5), pages 829-53, October.
  13. Ehrbeck, Tilman & Waldmann, Robert, 1996. "Why Are Professional Forecasters Biased? Agency versus Behavioral Explanations," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 111(1), pages 21-40, February.
  14. Cavaglia Stefano & Verschoor Willem F. C. & Wolff Christian C. P., 1993. "Asian Exchange Rate Expectations," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 57-77, March.
  15. Benassy-Quere, Agnes & Larribeau, Sophie & MacDonald, Ronald, 2003. "Models of exchange rate expectations: how much heterogeneity?," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 113-136, April.
  16. Goldberg, Michael D & Frydman, Roman, 1996. "Imperfect Knowledge and Behaviour in the Foreign Exchange Market," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 106(437), pages 869-93, July.
  17. John Foster & Burkhard Flieth, 2002. "Interactive expectations," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 12(4), pages 375-395.
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Cited by:
  1. Carl Bonham & Richard Cohen & Shigeyuki Abe, 2006. "The Rationality and Heterogeneity of Survey Forecasts of the Yen-Dollar Exchange Rate: A Reexamination," Working Papers 200611, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Economics.

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