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A Multilevel Approach to Explain Child Mortality and Undernutrition in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa

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  • Kenneth Harttgen

    ()
    (Universität Göttingen, Germany)

  • Mark Misselhorn

    ()
    (Universität Göttingen, Germany)

Abstract

While undernutrition among children is very pervasive both in Sub- Saharan Africa and South Asia, child mortality is rather low in South Asia. In contrast to that Sub-Saharan African countries suer by far the worst from high rates of child mortality. This dierent pattern of child mortality and undernutrition in both regions is well known, but approaches using aggregated macro data have not been able to explain it appropriately. In this paper we analyze the determinants of child mortality as well as child undernutrition based on DHS data sets for a sample of ve developing countries in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. We investigate the eects of individual, household and cluster socioeconomic characteristics using a multilevel model approach and examine their respective inuences on both phenomena. We nd that the determinants of child mortality and undernutrition dier signi cantly from each other. Access to health infrastructure is more important for child mortality, whereas the individual characteristics like wealth and educational and nutritional characteristics of mothers play a larger role for anthropometric shortfalls. Although very similar patterns in the determinants of each phenomenon are discernable between countries, there are large dierences in the magnitude of the coecients. Besides regressions using a combined data set of all six countries show, that there are still signicant dierences between the two regions although taking account of a large set of covariates.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Ibero-America Institute for Economic Research in its series Ibero America Institute for Econ. Research (IAI) Discussion Papers with number 152.

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Length: 38 pages
Date of creation: 19 Oct 2006
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:got:iaidps:152

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Keywords: Child mortality; child undernutrition; multilevel modelling;

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References

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  3. Smith, Lisa C. & Haddad, Lawrence James, 1999. "Explaining child malnutrition in developing countries," FCND discussion papers 60, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  4. Adebayo, Samson B. & Fahrmeir, Ludwig & Klasen, Stephan, 2004. "Analyzing infant mortality with geoadditive categorical regression models: a case study for Nigeria," Economics & Human Biology, Elsevier, vol. 2(2), pages 229-244, June.
  5. David E. Sahn & David Stifel, 2003. "Exploring Alternative Measures of Welfare in the Absence of Expenditure Data," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 49(4), pages 463-489, December.
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  7. Alain Marcoux, 2002. "Sex Differentials in Undernutrition: A Look at Survey Evidence," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 28(2), pages 275-284.
  8. Svedberg, Peter, 2002. "Hunger in India - Facts and Challenges," Seminar Papers 699, Stockholm University, Institute for International Economic Studies.
  9. Svedberg, Peter, 2000. "Poverty and Undernutrition: Theory, Measurement, and Policy," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198292685.
  10. Smith, Lisa C. & Haddad, Lawrence James, 2000. "Explaining child malnutrition in developing countries: a cross-country analysis," Research reports 111, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
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  12. Sarah Ssewanyana & Stephen D. Younger, 2008. "Infant Mortality in Uganda: Determinants, Trends and the Millennium Development Goals," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 17(1), pages 34-61, January.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Priebe, Jan & Gräb, Johannes, 2009. "Low Malnutrition but High Mortality: Explaining the Paradox of the Lake Victoria Region," Proceedings of the German Development Economics Conference, Frankfurt a.M. 2009 26, Verein für Socialpolitik, Research Committee Development Economics.
  2. Klasen, Stephan, 2007. "Poverty, Undernutrition, and Child Mortality: Some Inter-Regional Puzzles and their Implications for Research and Policy," Proceedings of the German Development Economics Conference, Göttingen 2007 17, Verein für Socialpolitik, Research Committee Development Economics.
  3. Marta Jankowska & Magdalena Benza & John R. Weeks, 2013. "Estimating spatial inequalities of urban child mortality," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 28(2), pages 33-62, January.
  4. Ellen van de Poel & Owen O'Donnell & Eddy van Doorslaer, 2007. "Are Urban Children really healthier?," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 07-035/3, Tinbergen Institute.
  5. Lay, Jann & Robilliard, Anne-Sophie, 2009. "The complementarity of MDG achievements : the case of child mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5062, The World Bank.
  6. Harttgen, Kenneth & Klasen, Stephan, 2010. "A household-based Human Development Index," Proceedings of the German Development Economics Conference, Hannover 2010 30, Verein für Socialpolitik, Research Committee Development Economics.
  7. Harttgen, Kenneth & Klasen, Stephan & Vollmer, Sebastian, 2012. "Economic Growth and Child Undernutrition in Africa," Discussion Papers 130164, Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen, GlobalFood, Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development.
  8. Kenneth Harttgen, 2007. "The Impact of HIV on Children´s Welfare," Ibero America Institute for Econ. Research (IAI) Discussion Papers 157, Ibero-America Institute for Economic Research.
  9. Yoko Akachi & David Canning, 2008. "The Mortality and Morbidity Transitions in Sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from Adult Heights," PGDA Working Papers 3308, Program on the Global Demography of Aging.
  10. Maria Carmela Lo Bue, 2014. "What drives child health improvements in Indonesian households? A micro-level perspective on complementarities in MDG achievements," Courant Research Centre: Poverty, Equity and Growth - Discussion Papers 155, Courant Research Centre PEG.
  11. Furukawa, Mitsuaki & Takahata, Junichiro, 2013. "Is GBS Still a Preferable Aid Modality?," Working Papers 50, JICA Research Institute.
  12. Foraita, Ronja & Klasen, Stephan & Pigeot, Iris, 2008. "Using graphical chain models to analyze differences in structural correlates of undernutrition in Benin and Bangladesh," Economics & Human Biology, Elsevier, vol. 6(3), pages 398-419, December.
  13. Ellen van de Poel & Owen O'Donnell & Eddy van Doorslaer, 2007. "Are Urban Children really healthier?," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 07-035/3, Tinbergen Institute.
  14. Harttgen, Kenneth & Vollmer, Sebastian, 2013. "Using an asset index to simulate household income," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 121(2), pages 257-262.

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