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Dépenses publiques d’éducation et inégalités Une perspective de cycle de vie

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Les dépenses publiques d’éducation contribuent-elles à réduire les inégalités ? La réponse à cette question, simple en apparence, dépend en réalité de choix normatifs et pose de façon parallèle des problèmes de mesure. Selon l’angle d’analyse adopté, on peut conclure d’une même dépense qu’elle est égalitaire, qu’elle augmente les inégalités de revenus ou encore qu’elle les réduit. Dans une partie méthodologique, nous montrons que le jugement sur le caractère équitable de la dépense publique d’éducation dépend en grande partie de la nature du rendement, social ou privé qu’elle génère. Nous cherchons ensuite à mesurer l’impact redistributif des dépenses éducatives et de leur financement pour une promotion de jeunes actifs ayant achevé leur formation initiale en 2001 et en 2002. Nous adoptons une perspective de cycle de vie qui consiste à estimer pour chaque individu d’une part, l’ensemble des dépenses publiques d’éducation dont il a bénéficié, et d’autre part, l’imposition nécessaire pour financer cette dépense, sous l’hypothèse d’une imposition proportionnelle aux revenus des individus tout au long de leur carrière professionnelle. Afin d’isoler les questions d’inégalité et de redistribution intra-générationnelles, nous faisons l’hypothèse que la promotion d’étudiants sous revue finance ses propres dépenses d’éducation. Nous concluons que les dépenses et le financement du système d’éducation au-delà de l’âge de l’enseignement obligatoire (16 ans) aggravent légèrement les inégalités liées à l’origine sociale. Toutefois, ces transferts sont un enjeu marginal par rapport à celui des différences de parcours et réussite scolaires et professionnels en fonction du milieu social d’origine. Nous montrons que ces différences de parcours et de réussite génèrent des inégalités 100 fois supérieures à celles générées par la dépense et le financement d

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Paper provided by Observatoire Francais des Conjonctures Economiques (OFCE) in its series Documents de Travail de l'OFCE with number 2010-06.

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Date of creation: Mar 2010
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Handle: RePEc:fce:doctra:1006

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Cited by:
  1. Balazs Egert, 2013. "The Efficiency and Equity of the Tax and Transfer System in France," CESifo Working Paper Series 4210, CESifo Group Munich.

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