The Distribution of Income and Fiscal Incidence by Age and Gender: Some Evidence from New Zealand
AbstractThis paper examines the age and gender dimensions of income distribution and fiscal incidence in New Zealand using Household Expenditure Survey (HES) data for 2010 and a non-behavioural micro-simulation model. Since many fiscal policies are likely to have quite different incidences across age groups and genders, and with population ageing changing the age and gender composition of the voting population in many countries, age/gender dimensions of fiscal incidence become increasingly relevant. While this single ‘age distribution snapshot’ cannot fully capture lifecycle incidences, it avoids the complex and uncertain assumptions implicit in the latter and is an important component of lifetime redistribution calculations. We explore alternative methods of intra-family allocation of resources including ‘unequal share’ assumptions based on recent research into how families allocate their spending. Our evidence, which in general is not highly sensitive to sharing assumptions, suggests a strong ‘life cycle’ aspect to fiscal incidence whereby net tax liabilities are low, and generally negative, at younger and older ages but positive during much of the ‘working age’ period. Women, on average, are found to have a systematically and persistently lower net fiscal liability than men, most pronounced at older ages when greater female longevity exercises a strong influence. Nevertheless, considerable heterogeneity of fiscal incidence for both men and women is observed with the distributions of various fiscal incidence measures showing substantial overlap.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Victoria University of Wellington, Chair in Public Finance in its series Working Paper Series with number 2852.
Date of creation: 2013
Date of revision:
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Postal: School of Accounting & Commercial Law, Victoria University of Wellington, PO Box 600, Wellington, New Zealand
Phone: +64 (4) 463 5775
Fax: +64 (4) 463 5076
Web page: http://www.victoria.ac.nz/sacl/about/chair-in-public-finance
More information through EDIRC
Income distribution; Fiscal incidence; Gender; Age;
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-AGE-2013-07-20 (Economics of Ageing)
- NEP-ALL-2013-07-20 (All new papers)
- NEP-LTV-2013-07-20 (Unemployment, Inequality & Poverty)
- NEP-PBE-2013-07-20 (Public Economics)
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