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The distribution of average and marginal effective tax rates in European Union Member States

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  • Immervoll, Herwig

Abstract

Macro-based summary indicators of effective tax burdens cannot provide information on the level or distribution of the marginal effective tax rates thought to influence household behaviour. They also do not capture differences in effective tax rates facing different subgroups of the population. I use EUROMOD, an EU-wide tax-benefit microsimulation model, to compute distributions of average and marginal effective tax rates across the household population in fourteen European Union Member States. Using different definitions of ‘net taxes’, the tax base and the unit of analysis I present a range of measures showing the contribution of the tax-benefit system to household incomes; average effective tax rates applicable to income from labour; and marginal effective tax rates faced by working men and women. In a second step, these measures are broken down to separately analyse the influence of each type of tax- benefit instrument. The results show that measures of effective tax rates vary considerably depending on incomes, labour market situations and family circumstances. Using single averages or macro-based indicators will therefore provide an inappropriate picture of tax burdens faced by large parts of the population.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research in its series EUROMOD Working Papers with number EM2/02.

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Date of creation: 01 Oct 2002
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Publication status: published
Handle: RePEc:ese:emodwp:em2-02

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References

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  1. G. Carone & A. Salom�ki, 2001. "Reforms in tax-benefit systems in order to increase emplyoment incentives in the EU," European Economy - Economic Papers 160, Directorate General Economic and Monetary Affairs (DG ECFIN), European Commission.
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  16. Frédéric Berger & Monique Borsenberger & Herwig Immervoll & Julie Lumen & Bertrand Scholtus & Klaas DeVos, 2003. "The Impact Of Tax-Benefit Systems On Lowincome Households In The Benelux Countries. A Simulation Approach Using Synthetic Datasets," Microeconomics 0302003, EconWPA, revised 07 Feb 2003.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Amedeo Spadaro, 2008. "Optimal taxation, social contract and the four worlds of welfare capitalism," Working Papers 98, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
  2. Herwig Immervoll & Henrik Jacobsen Kleven & Claus Thustrup Kreiner & Emmanuel Saez, 2005. "Welfare Reform in European Countries: A Microsimulation Analysis," OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers 28, OECD Publishing.
  3. Giuseppe Carone & Aino Salomaki & Herwig Immervoll & Dominique Paturot, 2004. "Indicators of unemployment and low-wage traps (Marginal effective tax rates on labour)," Labor and Demography 0409007, EconWPA.
  4. Van der Linden, Bruno, 2005. "Equilibrium Evaluation of Active Labor Market Programmes Enhancing Matching Effectiveness," IZA Discussion Papers 1526, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  5. Bargain, Olivier & Orsini, Kristian, 2006. "In-work policies in Europe: Killing two birds with one stone?," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(6), pages 667-697, December.
  6. Immervoll, Herwig & O'Donoghue, Cathal, 2003. "Employment transitions in 13 European countries: levels, distributions and determining factors of net replacement rates," EUROMOD Working Papers EM3/03, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
  7. Olivier Bargain & Amedeo Spadaro, 2008. "Optimal Taxation, Social Contract and the Four Worlds of Welfare Capitalism," Working Papers 200816, School Of Economics, University College Dublin.
  8. Jiøí Veèerník, 2006. "Income Taxes and Social Benefits among Czech Employees - Changes since 1989 and a Cross-national Comparison (in English)," Czech Journal of Economics and Finance (Finance a uver), Charles University Prague, Faculty of Social Sciences, vol. 56(1-2), pages 2-17, January.
  9. Dieckhoener, Caroline & Peichl, Andreas, 2009. "Financing social security: simulating different welfare state systems for Germany," EUROMOD Working Papers EM3/09, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
  10. Immervoll, Herwig, 2004. "Average and marginal effective tax rates facing workers in the EU: a micro-level analysis of levels, distributions and driving factors (revised version of EM2/02)," EUROMOD Working Papers EM6/04, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
  11. Kamil Galuscak & Jan Pavel, 2007. "Unemployment and Inactivity Traps in the Czech Republic: Incentive Effects of Policies," Working Papers 2007/9, Czech National Bank, Research Department.

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