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Agricultural Credit Market Institutions: A Comparison of Selected European Countries

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  • Hedman Jansson, Kristina
  • Huisman Chelsey, Jo
  • Lagerkvist, Carl Johan
  • Rabinowicz, Ewa
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    Abstract

    In this paper, we describe and compare the institutional framework of the agricultural credit markets in selected European countries. The institutions can be both formal (rules, regulations, authorities and actors) and informal (norms, values and relations). They also interact and in a situation where the formal institutions are weak, the informal ones increase in importance. The study is based on a questionnaire sent to agricultural financial experts in selected countries. The case studies show that credit regulations are typically general, with no specific regulations for the agricultural credit market. On the other hand, several countries support agricultural credit in various forms, implying that the governments do not perceive the general credit market to function in the case of agricultural firms. In a risk assessment, the most frequent reasons for rejecting a loan application are all linked to economic performance and the situation of the farmer. Personal characteristics, such as educational level or lack of experience, were generally perceived as less influential. Another interesting point when it comes to risk assessment is that in some countries the importance of asset-based lending compared with cash flow-based lending seems to differ when concerning a first-time applicant and when there is an application to extend a loan. To get an idea of the availability of credit, the loan-to-value (LTV) ratio was calculated, and it showed remarkably low values for Poland and Slovakia. For all the countries, the calculated value was lower than what the financial experts would have expected. This might imply credit rationing in agriculture in some of the countries studied. At the same time, the financial experts all judged the possibility of an agricultural firm obtaining a loan as higher than that for other small rural firms, implying that the latter are also credit-rationed.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Centre for European Policy Studies in its series Factor Markets Working Papers with number 143.

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    Length: 30 pages
    Date of creation: Jan 2013
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:eps:fmwppr:143

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    References

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    1. Martin Petrick, 2004. "A microeconometric analysis of credit rationing in the Polish farm sector," European Review of Agricultural Economics, Foundation for the European Review of Agricultural Economics, vol. 31(1), pages 77-101, March.
    2. Jaffee, Dwight M & Russell, Thomas, 1976. "Imperfect Information, Uncertainty, and Credit Rationing," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 90(4), pages 651-66, November.
    3. Martin Petrick & Laure Latruffe, 2006. "Contractual Relations in Agricultural Credit Markets: A Hedonic Pricing Approach with Application to Poland," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 57(1), pages 49-63, 03.
    4. Stiglitz, Joseph E & Weiss, Andrew, 1981. "Credit Rationing in Markets with Imperfect Information," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(3), pages 393-410, June.
    5. Stiglitz, Joseph E & Weiss, Andrew, 1983. "Incentive Effects of Terminations: Applications to the Credit and Labor Markets," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 73(5), pages 912-27, December.
    6. Scully, Gerald W, 1988. "The Institutional Framework and Economic Development," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 96(3), pages 652-62, June.
    7. Luigi Guiso & Paola Sapienza & Luigi Zingales, 2000. "The Role of Social Capital in Financial Development," NBER Working Papers 7563, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Petrick, Martin, 2003. "Empirical measurement of credit rationing in agriculture: a methodological survey," IAMO Discussion Papers 45, Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Central and Eastern Europe (IAMO).
    9. Jaffee, Dwight & Stiglitz, Joseph, 1990. "Credit rationing," Handbook of Monetary Economics, in: B. M. Friedman & F. H. Hahn (ed.), Handbook of Monetary Economics, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 16, pages 837-888 Elsevier.
    10. Ron Weber & Oliver Musshoff, 2012. "Is agricultural microcredit really more risky? Evidence from Tanzania," Agricultural Finance Review, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 72(3), pages 416-435, September.
    11. Petersen, Mitchell A & Rajan, Raghuram G, 1994. " The Benefits of Lending Relationships: Evidence from Small Business Data," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(1), pages 3-37, March.
    12. Swinnen, Johan F. M. & Gow, Hamish R., 1999. "Agricultural credit problems and policies during the transition to a market economy in Central and Eastern Europe," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 21-47, February.
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    Cited by:
    1. Hedman Jansson, Kristina & Lagerqvist, Carl Johan, 2013. "Performance Indicators in Agricultural Financial Markets," Factor Markets Working Papers 155, Centre for European Policy Studies.

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