Social and commercial entrepreneurship: Exploring individual and organizational characteristics
AbstractThis study extends our current knowledge of the social entrepreneur and the activities he/she is involved in and contrasts them with our understanding of commercial entrepreneurs. For the purpose of generating empirically-driven propositions, we bring together insights from current empirical investigations and insights from unique large-scale data from the GEM 2009 survey on social entrepreneurship covering Belgium and The Netherlands. Findings are refined with insights from interviews with key informants in both countries. In general the generated propositions seem to indicate a rather fragile entrepreneurial profile in terms of effort put into the organisation or activity, self-confidence, ambition in terms of employment growth, funding from the sale of products and services and progression to more mature stages of the entrepreneurial process. Furthermore, social entrepreneurs are more likely to be younger, more highly educated and they perceive legitimation of entrepreneurs in society differently than do their commercial counterparts.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by EIM Business and Policy Research in its series Scales Research Reports with number H201110.
Length: 49 pages
Date of creation: 09 Sep 2011
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Postal: P.O. Box 7001, 2701 AA Zoetermeer
Phone: (+31) 79 341 36 34
Fax: (+31) 79 341 50 24
Web page: http://www.entrepreneurship-sme.eu/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Mair, Johanna & Marti, Ignasi, 2009. "Entrepreneurship in and around institutional voids: A case study from Bangladesh," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 24(5), pages 419-435, September.
- Philipp Köllinger & Maria Minniti & Christian Schade, 2005.
""I Think I Can, I Think I Can": Overconfidence and Entrepreneurial Behavior,"
Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin
501, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
- Koellinger, Philipp & Minniti, Maria & Schade, Christian, 2007. ""I think I can, I think I can": Overconfidence and entrepreneurial behavior," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 28(4), pages 502-527, August.
- Etzioni, Amitai, 1987. "Entrepreneurship, adaptation and legitimation : A macro-behavioral perspective," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 8(2), pages 175-189, June.
- Seelos, Christian & Mair, Johanna, 2005. "Social entrepreneurship: Creating new business models to serve the poor," Business Horizons, Elsevier, vol. 48(3), pages 241-246.
- Sharir, Moshe & Lerner, Miri, 2006. "Gauging the success of social ventures initiated by individual social entrepreneurs," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 41(1), pages 6-20, February.
- Carter, Nancy M. & Gartner, William B. & Reynolds, Paul D., 1996. "Exploring start-up event sequences," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 11(3), pages 151-166, May.
- Nyssens, Marthe, 2006. "Social Enterprise : At the crossroads of markets, public policies and civil society," Open Access publications from UniversitÃ© catholique de Louvain info:hdl:2078.1/73694, Université catholique de Louvain.
- Zoltan Acs & Niels Bosma & Rolf Sternberg, 2008. "The Entrepreneurial Advantage of World Cities - Evidence from Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Data," Jena Economic Research Papers 2008-063, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Max-Planck-Institute of Economics.
- Nicholls, Alex, 2010. "Institutionalizing social entrepreneurship in regulatory space: Reporting and disclosure by community interest companies," Accounting, Organizations and Society, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 394-415, May.
- Rampini, Adriano A., 2004. "Entrepreneurial activity, risk, and the business cycle," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(3), pages 555-573, April.
- S. Bacq & F. Janssen, 2011. "The multiple faces of social entrepreneurship: A review of definitional issues based on geographical and thematic criteria," Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, Taylor and Francis Journals, vol. 23(5-6), pages 373-403, June.
- Pia Arenius & Maria Minniti, 2005. "Perceptual Variables and Nascent Entrepreneurship," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 24(3), pages 233-247, 02.
- Roy Thurik & Andreas Freytag, 2006.
"Entrepreneurship and its determinants in a cross-country setting,"
Scales Research Reports
H200616, EIM Business and Policy Research.
- Andreas Freytag & Roy Thurik, 2007. "Entrepreneurship and its determinants in a cross-country setting," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 17(2), pages 117-131, April.
- Mair, Johanna & Martí, Ignasi, 2006. "Social entrepreneurship research: A source of explanation, prediction, and delight," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 41(1), pages 36-44, February.
- Justin van der Sluis & Mirjam van Praag & Wim Vijverberg, 2003. "Entrepreneurship Selection and Performance," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 03-046/3, Tinbergen Institute, revised 24 Sep 2004.
- Simon C. Parker & Mirjam Van Praag, 2010. "Group Status and Entrepreneurship," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 19(4), pages 919-945, December.
- Donald R. Williams, 2004. "Youth Self Employment: Its Nature and Consequences," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 23(4), pages 323-336, November.
- Verheul, Ingrid & Thurik, Roy, 2001. " Start-Up Capital: "Does Gender Matter?"," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 16(4), pages 329-45, June.
- Rolf Sternberg & Sander Wennekers, 2005. "Determinants and Effects of New Business Creation Using Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Data," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 24(3), pages 193-203, 01.
- Heiko Bergmann & Rolf Sternberg, 2007. "The Changing Face of Entrepreneurship in Germany," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 28(2), pages 205-221, March.
- Weerawardena, Jay & Mort, Gillian Sullivan, 2006. "Investigating social entrepreneurship: A multidimensional model," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 41(1), pages 21-35, February.
- David G. Blanchflower, 2004. "Self-Employment: More may not be better," NBER Working Papers 10286, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Jonathan Levie, 2007. "Immigration, In-Migration, Ethnicity and Entrepreneurship in the United Kingdom," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 28(2), pages 143-169, March.
- Hoogendoorn, B. & Pennings, H.P.G. & Thurik, A.R., 2010. "What do We Know about Social Entrepreneurship: An Analysis of Empirical Research," Research Paper ERS-2009-044-ORG, Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), ERIM is the joint research institute of the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the Erasmus School of Economics (ESE) at Erasmus Uni.
- Minniti, Maria, 2004. "Entrepreneurial alertness and asymmetric information in a spin-glass model," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 19(5), pages 637-658, September.
- Dan Lovallo & Colin Camerer, 1999. "Overconfidence and Excess Entry: An Experimental Approach," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(1), pages 306-318, March.
- Zahra, Shaker A. & Gedajlovic, Eric & Neubaum, Donald O. & Shulman, Joel M., 2009. "A typology of social entrepreneurs: Motives, search processes and ethical challenges," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 24(5), pages 519-532, September.
- Peredo, Ana María & McLean, Murdith, 2006. "Social entrepreneurship: A critical review of the concept," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 41(1), pages 56-65, February.
- Marc Cowling, 2000. "Are entrepreneurs different across countries?," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor and Francis Journals, vol. 7(12), pages 785-789.
- Chantal Hartog & Brigitte Hoogendoorn, 2011. "Prevalence and Determinants of Social Entrepreneurship at the Macro-level," Scales Research Reports H201022, EIM Business and Policy Research.
- Hattwick, Richard E., 1979. "Perception, opportunity and profit : Studies in the Theory of Entrepreneurship. By Israel M. Kirzner. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1980. Pp. 239. Price: $15.00," Journal of Behavioral Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(2), pages 183-188.
- Silvia Dorado, 2006. "Social Entrepreneurial Ventures: Different Values So Different Process Of Creation, No?," Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship (JDE), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 11(04), pages 319-343.
- Smallbone, David & Welter, Friederike, 2001. " The Distinctiveness of Entrepreneurship in Transition Economies," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 16(4), pages 249-62, June.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Webmaster EIM).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.