Prevalence and Determinants of Social Entrepreneurship at the Macro-level
AbstractThis study deals with the prevalence and drivers of social entrepreneurship across countries. Unique large-scale and internationally comparable data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) 2009 covering 49 countries at different stages of development are used as our main data source. Hypotheses are generated from a multitude of theoretical perspectives including the failure thesis, interdependence theory, welfare state theory and supply-side theory. As regards the antecedents of the occurrence of social entrepreneurship, our findings suggest above all that social entrepreneurship is a phenomenon driven by wealth. In addition, we find a positive association between government expenditure on welfare and the prevalence of social entrepreneurship which assumes a relation of interdependence and partnership between government and social organizations. This finding supports the interdependence theory. With respect to cultural values, we postulate that a society’s level of individualism can be considered to be a driver of social entrepreneurship. This suggests that in societies where ties between individuals are loose, social entrepreneurship is more widespread.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by EIM Business and Policy Research in its series Scales Research Reports with number H201022.
Length: 19 pages
Date of creation: 14 Jun 2011
Date of revision:
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This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2010-12-04 (All new papers)
- NEP-CSE-2010-12-04 (Economics of Strategic Management)
- NEP-ENT-2010-12-04 (Entrepreneurship)
- NEP-SOC-2010-12-04 (Social Norms & Social Capital)
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- Chantal Hartog & Brigitte Hoogendoorn & Sophie Bacq & Jan Lepoutre, 2011. "Social and commercial entrepreneurship: Exploring individual and organizational characteristics," Scales Research Reports H201110, EIM Business and Policy Research.
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