Bagging Binary Predictors for Time Series
AbstractBootstrap aggregating or Bagging, introduced by Breiman (1996a), has been proved to be effective to improve on unstable forecast. Theoretical and empirical works using classification, regression trees, variable selection in linear and non-linear regression have shown that bagging can generate substantial prediction gain. However, most of the existing literature on bagging have been limited to the cross sectional circumstances with symmetric cost functions. In this paper, we extend the application of bagging to time series settings with asymmetric cost functions, particularly for predicting signs and quantiles. We link quantile predictions to binary predictions in a unified framwork. We find that bagging may improve the accuracy of unstable predictions for time series data under certain conditions. Various bagging forecast combinations are used such as equal weighted and Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) weighted combinations. For demonstration, we present results from Monte Carlo experiments and from empirical applications using monthly S&P500 and NASDAQ stock index returns
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Econometric Society in its series Econometric Society 2004 Far Eastern Meetings with number 512.
Date of creation: 11 Aug 2004
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Phone: 1 212 998 3820
Fax: 1 212 995 4487
Web page: http://www.econometricsociety.org/pastmeetings.asp
More information through EDIRC
Asymmetric cost function; Bagging; Binary prediction; BMA; Forecast combination; Majority voting; Quantile prediction; Time Series.;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- C3 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables
- C5 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling
- G0 - Financial Economics - - General
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2004-08-16 (All new papers)
- NEP-ECM-2004-08-16 (Econometrics)
- NEP-ETS-2004-08-16 (Econometric Time Series)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Manski, Charles F., 1975. "Maximum score estimation of the stochastic utility model of choice," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 3(3), pages 205-228, August.
- Graham Elliott & Ivana Komunjer & Allan Timmermann, 2005.
"Biases In Macroeconomic Forecasts: Irrationality Or Asymmetric Loss?,"
CAMA Working Papers
2005-14, Centre for Applied Macroeconomic Analysis, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University.
- Graham Elliott & Ivana Komunjer & Allan Timmermann, 2008. "Biases in Macroeconomic Forecasts: Irrationality or Asymmetric Loss?," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 6(1), pages 122-157, 03.
- Allan Timmermann & Graham Elliott & Ivana Komunjer, 2004. "Biases in Macroeconomic Forecasts: Irrationality or Asymmetric Loss?," Econometric Society 2004 North American Summer Meetings 601, Econometric Society.
- Elliott, Graham & Komunjer, Ivana & Timmermann, Allan G, 2003. "Estimating Loss Function Parameters," CEPR Discussion Papers 3821, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Len Umantsev & Victor Chernozhukov, 2001. "Conditional value-at-risk: Aspects of modeling and estimation," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 26(1), pages 271-292.
- Clive W.J. Granger, 1999. "Outline of forecast theory using generalized cost functions," Spanish Economic Review, Springer, vol. 1(2), pages 161-173.
- Manski, C.F. & Thompson, S.T., 1989.
"Estimation Of Best Predictors Of Benary Response,"
367, Wisconsin Madison - Social Systems.
- Deutsch, Melinda & Granger, Clive W. J. & Terasvirta, Timo, 1994. "The combination of forecasts using changing weights," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 10(1), pages 47-57, June.
- Yang, Yuhong, 2004. "Combining Forecasting Procedures: Some Theoretical Results," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 20(01), pages 176-222, February.
- Härdle, Wolfgang & Horowitz, Joel L. & Kreiss, Jens-Peter, 2001. "Bootstrap methods for time series," SFB 373 Discussion Papers 2001,59, Humboldt University of Berlin, Interdisciplinary Research Project 373: Quantification and Simulation of Economic Processes.
- Granger, C.W.J. & Pesaran, M. H., 1999. "Economic and Statistical Measures of Forecast Accuracy," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 9910, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
- Hahn, Jinyong, 1997. "Bayesian Bootstrap of the Quantile Regression Estimator: A Large Sample Study," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 38(4), pages 795-808, November.
- Thomas Knox & James H. Stock & Mark W. Watson, 2000.
"Empirical Bayes Forecasts of One Time Series Using Many Predictors,"
Econometric Society World Congress 2000 Contributed Papers
1421, Econometric Society.
- Thomas Knox & James H. Stock & Mark W. Watson, 2001. "Empirical Bayes Forecasts of One Time Series Using Many Predictors," NBER Technical Working Papers 0269, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Pesaran, H.M. & Timmermann, A., 2003.
"How Costly is it to Ignore Breaks when Forecasting the Direction of a Time Series?,"
Cambridge Working Papers in Economics
0306, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
- Pesaran, M. Hashem & Timmermann, Allan, 2004. "How costly is it to ignore breaks when forecasting the direction of a time series?," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 411-425.
- Allan Timmermann & M. Hashem Pesaran, 2003. "How Costly is it to Ignore Breaks when Forecasting the Direction of a Time Series?," CESifo Working Paper Series 875, CESifo Group Munich.
- M. Hashem Pesaran, 2000.
"Forecast Uncertainties in Macroeconometric Modelling: An Application to the UK Economy,"
CESifo Working Paper Series
345, CESifo Group Munich.
- Garrat, A. & Lee, K. & Pesaran, M.H. & Shin, Y., 2000. "Forecast Uncertainties in Macroeconometric Modelling: An Application to the UK Economy," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 0004, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
- Garratt, Anthony & Kevin Lee & M Hashem Pesaran & Yongcheol Shin, 2002. "Forecast Uncertainties In Macroeconometric Modelling: An Application to the UK Economy," Royal Economic Society Annual Conference 2002 82, Royal Economic Society.
- M. Hashem Pesaran & Allan Timmermann, 2002.
"Market timing and return prediction under model instability,"
LSE Research Online Documents on Economics
24932, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
- Pesaran, M. Hashem & Timmermann, Allan, 2002. "Market timing and return prediction under model instability," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 9(5), pages 495-510, December.
- Allan Timmermann & M. Hashem Pesaran, 2002. "Market Timing and Return Prediction under Model Instability," FMG Discussion Papers dp412, Financial Markets Group.
- Komunjer, Ivana, 2005.
"Quasi-maximum likelihood estimation for conditional quantiles,"
Journal of Econometrics,
Elsevier, vol. 128(1), pages 137-164, September.
- Komunjer, Ivana, 2002. "Quasi-Maximum Likelihood Estimation for Conditional Quantiles," Working Papers 1139, California Institute of Technology, Division of the Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Manski, Charles F., 1985. "Semiparametric analysis of discrete response : Asymptotic properties of the maximum score estimator," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 313-333, March.
- West, Kenneth D & McCracken, Michael W, 1998.
"Regression-Based Tests of Predictive Ability,"
International Economic Review,
Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 39(4), pages 817-40, November.
- Fitzenberger, Bernd, 1998. "The moving blocks bootstrap and robust inference for linear least squares and quantile regressions," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 82(2), pages 235-287, February.
- Horowitz, Joel L, 1992. "A Smoothed Maximum Score Estimator for the Binary Response Model," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 60(3), pages 505-31, May.
- Ding, Zhuanxin & Granger, Clive W. J. & Engle, Robert F., 1993. "A long memory property of stock market returns and a new model," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 1(1), pages 83-106, June.
- Yongmiao Hong & Tae-Hwy Lee, 2003. "Inference on Predictability of Foreign Exchange Rates via Generalized Spectrum and Nonlinear Time Series Models," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 85(4), pages 1048-1062, November.
- Joel L. Horowitz, 1998.
"Bootstrap Methods for Median Regression Models,"
Econometric Society, vol. 66(6), pages 1327-1352, November.
- Clive W. J. Granger, 2002. "Some comments on risk," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 17(5), pages 447-456.
- Powell, James L., 1986. "Censored regression quantiles," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 143-155, June.
- Avramov, Doron, 2002. "Stock return predictability and model uncertainty," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(3), pages 423-458, June.
- Granger, Clive W. J. & Jeon, Yongil, 2004. "Thick modeling," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 21(2), pages 323-343, March.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Christopher F. Baum).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.