Borrow Cheap, Buy High? The Determinants of Leverage and Pricing in Buyouts
AbstractThis paper provides an empirical analysis of the financial structure of large buyouts. We collect detailed information on the financing of 1157 worldwide private equity deals from 1980 to 2008. Buyout leverage is cross-sectionally unrelated to the leverage of matched public firms, and is largely driven by factors other than what explains leverage in public firms. In particular, the economy-wide cost of borrowing is the main driver of both the quantity and the composition of debt in these buyouts. Credit conditions also have a strong effect on prices paid in buyouts, even after controlling for prices of equivalent public market companies. Finally, the use of high leverage in transactions negatively affects fund performance, controlling for fund vintage and other relevant characteristics. The results are consistent with the view that the availability of financing impacts booms and busts in the private equity market, and that agency problems between private equity funds and their investors can affect buyout capital structures.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Ohio State University, Charles A. Dice Center for Research in Financial Economics in its series Working Paper Series with number 2010-9.
Date of creation: Apr 2010
Date of revision:
Other versions of this item:
- Ulf Axelson & Tim Jenkinsom & Per Strömberg & Michael S. Weisbach, 2012. "Borrow Cheap, Buy High? The Determinants of Leverage and Pricing in Buyouts," FMG Discussion Papers dp698, Financial Markets Group.
- Axelson, Ulf & Jenkinson, Tim & Strömberg, Per Johan & Weisbach, Michael, 2012. "Borrow Cheap, Buy High? The Determinants of Leverage and Pricing in Buyouts," CEPR Discussion Papers 8914, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Ulf Axelson & Tim Jenkinson & Per Strömberg & Michael S. Weisbach, 2010. "Borrow Cheap, Buy High? The Determinants of Leverage and Pricing in Buyouts," NBER Working Papers 15952, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill
- G34 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Mergers; Acquisitions; Restructuring; Corporate Governance
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Boucly, Quentin & Sraer, David & Thesmar, David, 2011. "Growth LBOs," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 102(2), pages 432-453.
- Victoria Ivashina & Anna Kovner, 2011. "The Private Equity Advantage: Leveraged Buyout Firms and Relationship Banking," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 24(7), pages 2462-2498.
- Campbell, Rachel A.J., 2008. "Art finance," Open Access publications from Maastricht University urn:nbn:nl:ui:27-19578, Maastricht University.
- Malcolm Baker & Jeffrey Wurgler, 2002.
"Market Timing and Capital Structure,"
Journal of Finance,
American Finance Association, vol. 57(1), pages 1-32, 02.
- Fischer, Edwin O & Heinkel, Robert & Zechner, Josef, 1989. " Dynamic Capital Structure Choice: Theory and Tests," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 44(1), pages 19-40, March.
- Cara S. Lown & Donald P. Morgan & Sonali Rohatgi, 2000. "Listening to loan officers: the impact of commercial credit standards on lending and output," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue Jul, pages 1-16.
- Baker, Malcolm & Greenwood, Robin & Wurgler, Jeffrey, 2003. "The maturity of debt issues and predictable variation in bond returns," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(2), pages 261-291, November.
- Achleitner, Ann-Kristin & Braun, Reiner & Engel, Nico, 2011. "Value creation and pricing in buyouts: Empirical evidence from Europe and North America," Review of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 146-161.
- Tykvová, Tereza & Borell, Mariela, 2012.
"Do private equity owners increase risk of financial distress and bankruptcy?,"
Journal of Corporate Finance,
Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 138-150.
- Tykvová, Tereza & Borell, Mariela, 2011. "Do private equity owners increase risk of financial distress and bankruptcy?," ZEW Discussion Papers 11-076, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
- Lopez-de-Silanes, Florencio & Phalippou, Ludovic & Gottschalg, Olivier, 2010. "Giants at the Gate: On the Cross-section of Private Equity Investment Returns," MPRA Paper 28487, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- David T. Robinson & Berk A. Sensoy, 2011. "Cyclicality, Performance Measurement, and Cash Flow Liquidity in Private Equity," NBER Working Papers 17428, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes & Ludovic Phalippou & Oliver Gottschalg, 2011. "Giants at the Gate: On the Cross-Section of Private Equity Investment Returns," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 20000, Tinbergen Institute.
- Achleitner, Ann-Kristin & Braun, Reiner & Tappeiner, Florian, 2009. "Structure and determinants of financial covenants in leveraged buyouts - evidence from an economy with strong creditor rights," CEFS Working Paper Series 2009-15, Center for Entrepreneurial and Financial Studies (CEFS), Technische Universität München.
- Nadauld, Taylor D. & Weisbach, Michael S., 2010.
"Did Securitization Affect the Cost of Corporate Debt?,"
Working Paper Series
2010-16, Ohio State University, Charles A. Dice Center for Research in Financial Economics.
- Nadauld, Taylor D. & Weisbach, Michael S., 2012. "Did securitization affect the cost of corporate debt?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 105(2), pages 332-352.
- Taylor D. Nadauld & Michael S. Weisbach, 2011. "Did Securitization Affect the Cost of Corporate Debt?," NBER Working Papers 16849, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Thorsten Knauer & Friedrich Sommer, 2012. "Interest barrier rules as a response to highly leveraged transactions: Evidence from the 2008 German business tax reform," Review of Accounting and Finance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 11(2), pages 206-232, May.
- Gregory, David, 2013. "Private equity and financial stability," Bank of England Quarterly Bulletin, Bank of England, vol. 53(1), pages 38-47.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ().
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.