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The Anatomy of French Production Hierarchies

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  • Lorenzo Caliendo

    ()
    (School of Management, Yale University)

  • Ferdinando Monte

    (Johns Hopkins University)

  • Esteban Rossi-Hansberg

    (Princeton University)

Abstract

We use a comprehensive dataset of French manufacturing firms to study their internal organization. We first divide the employees of each firm into 'layers' using occupational categories. Layers are hierarchical in that the typical worker in a higher layer earns more, and the typical firm occupies less of them. In addition, the probability of adding (dropping) a layer is very positively (negatively) correlated with value added. We then explore the changes in the wages and number of employees that accompany expansions in layers, output, or markets (by becoming exporters). The empirical results indicate that reorganization, through changes in layers, is key to understand how firms expand and contract. For example, we find that firms that expand substantially add layers and pay lower average wages in all pre-existing layers. In contrast, firms that expand little and do not reorganize pay higher average wages in all pre-existing layers.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University in its series Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers with number 1867.

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Length: 75 pages
Date of creation: Jul 2012
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:cwl:cwldpp:1867

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References

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  1. Luis Garicano, 2000. "Hierarchies and the Organization of Knowledge in Production," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 108(5), pages 874-904, October.
  2. Bernard, Andrew & Jensen, J Bradford & Redding, Stephen J & Schott, Peter, 2007. "Firms in International Trade," CEPR Discussion Papers 6277, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  3. Luis Garicano & Esteban Rossi-Hansberg, 2005. "Organization and Inequality in a Knowledge Economy," NBER Working Papers 11458, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Jonathan Eaton & Samuel Kortum & Francis Kramarz, 2011. "An Anatomy of International Trade: Evidence From French Firms," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 79(5), pages 1453-1498, 09.
  5. Rasmus Lentz & Dale T. Mortensen, 2005. "An Empirical Model of Growth Through Product Innovation," NBER Working Papers 11546, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Bernard, A.B. & Jensen, J.B., 1994. "Exporters, Skill Upgrading, and the Wage Gap," Working papers 94-30, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
  7. Eve Caroli & John Van Reenen, 2001. "Skill-Biased Organizational Change? Evidence From A Panel Of British And French Establishments," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 116(4), pages 1449-1492, November.
  8. Lorenzo Caliendo & Esteban Rossi-Hansberg, 2012. "The Impact of Trade on Organization and Productivity," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 127(3), pages 1393-1467.
  9. Andrew B. Bernard & J. Bradford Jensen, 1997. "Exceptional Exporter Performance: Cause, Effect, or Both?," NBER Working Papers 6272, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Verhoogen, Eric, 2007. "Trade, Quality Upgrading and Wage Inequality in the Mexican Manufacturing Sector," IZA Discussion Papers 2913, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  11. Elhanan Helpman & Oleg Itskhoki & Stephen Redding, 2008. "Inequality and Unemployment in a Global Economy," NBER Working Papers 14478, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. Hopenhayn, Hugo A, 1992. "Entry, Exit, and Firm Dynamics in Long Run Equilibrium," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 60(5), pages 1127-50, September.
  13. Felbermayr, Gabriel & Prat, Julien & Schmerer, Hans-Jörg, 2011. "Globalization and labor market outcomes: Wage bargaining, search frictions, and firm heterogeneity," Munich Reprints in Economics 20471, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
  14. Qian, Yingyi, 1994. "Incentives and Loss of Control in an Optimal Hierarchy," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 61(3), pages 527-44, July.
  15. Melitz, Marc J, 2002. "The Impact of Trade on Intra-Industry Reallocations and Aggregate Industry Productivity," CEPR Discussion Papers 3381, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  16. Guadalupe, Maria & Wulf, Julie, 2009. "The Flattening Firm and Product Market Competition," CEPR Discussion Papers 7253, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Marin, Dalia & Rousova, Linda & Verdier, Thierry, 2013. "Do Multinationals Transplant their Business Model?," Discussion Papers in Economics 15131, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
  2. Luis Garicano & Claire LeLarge & John Van Reenen, 2013. "Firm Size Distortions and the Productivity Distribution: Evidence from France," NBER Working Papers 18841, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Mion, Giordano & Opromolla, Luca David, 2013. "Managers’ mobility, trade performance, and wages," Working Paper Series 1596, European Central Bank.
  4. Tåg, Joacim, 2013. "Production Hierarchies in Sweden," Working Paper Series 963, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
  5. Heyman, Fredrik & Sjöholm, Fredrik & Davidson, Carl & Matusz, Steven & Chun Zhu, Susan, 2014. "Global Engagement and the Occupational Structure of Firms," Working Paper Series 1026, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
  6. Cruz, Marcio, 2014. "Do export promotion agencies promote new exporters ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 7004, The World Bank.
  7. Tåg, Joacim & Åstebro, Thomas & Thompson, Peter, 2013. "Hierarchies, the Small Firm Effect, and Entrepreneurship: Evidence from Swedish Microdata," Working Paper Series 954, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
  8. Luca David Opromolla, 2013. "Trade and wage inequality," Economic Bulletin and Financial Stability Report Articles, Banco de Portugal, Economics and Research Department.
  9. Westling, Tatu, 2012. "Managerial spans, industry tasks and ICT: evidence from the U.S," MPRA Paper 39403, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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