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The Anatomy of French Production Hierarchies

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  • Lorenzo Caliendo

    ()
    (School of Management, Yale University)

  • Ferdinando Monte

    (Johns Hopkins University)

  • Esteban Rossi-Hansberg

    (Princeton University)

Abstract

We use a comprehensive dataset of French manufacturing firms to study their internal organization. We first divide the employees of each firm into 'layers' using occupational categories. Layers are hierarchical in that the typical worker in a higher layer earns more, and the typical firm occupies less of them. In addition, the probability of adding (dropping) a layer is very positively (negatively) correlated with value added. We then explore the changes in the wages and number of employees that accompany expansions in layers, output, or markets (by becoming exporters). The empirical results indicate that reorganization, through changes in layers, is key to understand how firms expand and contract. For example, we find that firms that expand substantially add layers and pay lower average wages in all pre-existing layers. In contrast, firms that expand little and do not reorganize pay higher average wages in all pre-existing layers.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University in its series Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers with number 1867.

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Length: 75 pages
Date of creation: Jul 2012
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:cwl:cwldpp:1867

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  1. Bradford J Jensen & Andrew B Bernard, 1994. "Exporters, Skill Upgrading And The Wage Gap," Working Papers 94-13, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
  2. Van Reenen, John & Caroli, Eve, 2001. "Skill-Biased Organizational Change? Evidence from a panel of British and French establishments," Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine 123456789/10093, Paris Dauphine University.
  3. Elhanan Helpman & Oleg Itskhoki & Stephen Redding, 2010. "Inequality and Unemployment in a Global Economy," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 78(4), pages 1239-1283, 07.
  4. Eric Verhoogen, 2007. "Trade, quality upgrading and wage inequality in the Mexican manufacturing sector," Discussion Papers 0607-08, Columbia University, Department of Economics.
  5. Andrew Bernard & J. Bradford Jensen & Stephen Redding & Peter Schott, 2007. "Firms in International Trade," Working Papers 07-14, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
  6. Caliendo, Lorenzo & Rossi-Hansberg, Esteban, 2011. "The Impact of Trade on Organization and Productivity," CEPR Discussion Papers 8535, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  7. Marc J. Melitz, 2003. "The Impact of Trade on Intra-Industry Reallocations and Aggregate Industry Productivity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 71(6), pages 1695-1725, November.
  8. Rasmus Lentz & Dale T. Mortensen, 2005. "An Empirical Model of Growth Through Product Innovation," Boston University - Department of Economics - Working Papers Series WP2005-004, Boston University - Department of Economics.
  9. Qian, Yingyi, 1994. "Incentives and Loss of Control in an Optimal Hierarchy," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 61(3), pages 527-44, July.
  10. Jonathan Eaton & Samuel Kortum, 2004. "An Anatomy of International Trade: Evidence from French Firms," 2004 Meeting Papers 802, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  11. Bernard, Andrew B. & Bradford Jensen, J., 1999. "Exceptional exporter performance: cause, effect, or both?," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(1), pages 1-25, February.
  12. Luis Garicano & Esteban Rossi-Hansberg, 2005. "Organization and Inequality in a Knowledge Economy," NBER Working Papers 11458, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. Luis Garicano, 2000. "Hierarchies and the Organization of Knowledge in Production," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 108(5), pages 874-904, October.
  14. Felbermayr, Gabriel & Prat, Julien & Schmerer, Hans-Jörg, 2008. "Globalization and Labor Market Outcomes: Wage Bargaining, Search Frictions, and Firm Heterogeneity," IZA Discussion Papers 3363, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  15. Guadalupe, Maria & Wulf, Julie, 2009. "The Flattening Firm and Product Market Competition," CEPR Discussion Papers 7253, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  16. Hopenhayn, Hugo A, 1992. "Entry, Exit, and Firm Dynamics in Long Run Equilibrium," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 60(5), pages 1127-50, September.
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Cited by:
  1. Tåg, Joacim & Åstebro, Thomas & Thompson, Peter, 2013. "Hierarchies, the Small Firm Effect, and Entrepreneurship: Evidence from Swedish Microdata," Working Paper Series 954, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
  2. Tåg, Joacim, 2013. "Production hierarchies in Sweden," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 121(2), pages 210-213.
  3. Marin, Dalia & Rousová, Linda & Verdier, Thierry, 2013. "Do Multinationals Transplant their Business Model?," CEPR Discussion Papers 9500, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  4. Westling, Tatu, 2012. "Managerial spans, industry tasks and ICT: evidence from the U.S," MPRA Paper 39403, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  5. Garicano, Luis & Lelarge, Claire & Van Reenen, John, 2013. "Firm Size Distortions and the Productivity Distribution: Evidence from France," CEPR Discussion Papers 9495, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  6. Mion, Giordano & Opromolla, Luca David, 2013. "Managers’ mobility, trade performance, and wages," Working Paper Series 1596, European Central Bank.
  7. Cruz, Marcio, 2014. "Do export promotion agencies promote new exporters ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 7004, The World Bank.
  8. Heyman, Fredrik & Sjöholm, Fredrik & Davidson, Carl & Matusz, Steven & Chun Zhu, Susan, 2014. "Global Engagement and the Occupational Structure of Firms," Working Paper Series 1026, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
  9. Luca David Opromolla, 2013. "Trade and wage inequality," Economic Bulletin and Financial Stability Report Articles, Banco de Portugal, Economics and Research Department.

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