The Flattening Firm and Product Market Competition: The Effect of Trade Liberalization on Corporate Hierarchies
AbstractThis paper establishes a causal effect of product market competition on various characteristics of organizational design. Using a unique panel dataset on firm hierarchies of large US firms (1986-1999) and a quasi-natural experiment (trade liberalization), we find that competition leads firms to flatten their hierarchies: firms reduce the number of positions between the CEO and division managers, and firms increase the number of positions reporting directly to the CEO. The results illustrate how firms redesign their organizational structure through a set of complementary choices in response to changes in their environment. We discuss several possible interpretations of these changes. (JEL D23, F13, G34, M12, M51)
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by American Economic Association in its journal American Economic Journal: Applied Economics.
Volume (Year): 2 (2010)
Issue (Month): 4 (October)
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- D23 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Organizational Behavior; Transaction Costs; Property Rights
- F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
- G34 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Mergers; Acquisitions; Restructuring; Corporate Governance
- M12 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting - - Business Administration - - - Personnel Management; Executives; Executive Compensation
- M51 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting - - Personnel Economics - - - Firm Employment Decisions; Promotions
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Philippe Aghion & Jean Tirole, 1994.
"Formal and Real Authority in Organizations,"
95-8, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
- Aghion, Philippe & Tirole, Jean, 1997. "Formal and Real Authority in Organizations," Scholarly Articles 4554125, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Aghion, Philippe & Tirole, Jean, 1994. "Formal and Real Authority in Organizations," IDEI Working Papers 37, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse.
- Philippe Aghion & Jean Tirole, 1994. "Normal and Real Authority in Organizations," Working papers 94-13, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
- Andrew F. Newman & Patrick Legros & Paola Conconi, 2011.
"Trade Liberalization and Organizational Change,"
Boston University - Department of Economics - Working Papers Series
WP2011-037, Boston University - Department of Economics.
- Conconi, Paola & Legros, Patrick & Newman, Andrew, 2008. "Trade Liberalization and Organizational Change," CEPR Discussion Papers 7028, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Paola Conconi & Patrick Legros & Andrew F. Newman, 2008. "Trade Liberalization and Organizational Change," Development Working Papers 262, Centro Studi Luca d\'Agliano, University of Milano.
- Paola Conconi & Patrick Legros & Andrew Newman, 2012. "Trade Liberalization and Organizational Change," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/145500, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
- Valta, Philip, 2012. "Competition and the cost of debt," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 105(3), pages 661-682.
- Alimov, Azizjon, 2014. "Product market competition and the value of corporate cash: Evidence from trade liberalization," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 122-139.
- Marin, Dalia, 2012.
"The Theory of the Firm goes Global,"
Discussion Papers in Economics
12690, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
- Marin, Dalia, 2012. "The Theory of the Firm goes Global," CEPR Discussion Papers 8880, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Dalia Marin, 2013. "The Theory of the Firm Goes Global," CESifo Working Paper Series 4509, CESifo Group Munich.
- Marin, Dalia, 2012. "The Theory of the Firm goes Global," Discussion Paper Series of SFB/TR 15 Governance and the Efficiency of Economic Systems 370, Free University of Berlin, Humboldt University of Berlin, University of Bonn, University of Mannheim, University of Munich.
- William Mullins & Antoinette Schoar, 2013. "How do CEOs see their Role? Management Philosophy and Styles in Family and Non-Family Firms," NBER Working Papers 19395, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Catherine Thomas, 2011. "Too Many Products: Decentralized Decision Making in Multinational Firms," American Economic Journal: Microeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 3(1), pages 280-306, February.
- Valerie Smeets & Michael Waldman & Frederic Warzynski, 2013. "Performance, Career Dynamics, and Span of Control," Economics Working Papers 2013-02, School of Economics and Management, University of Aarhus.
- Claudio Loderer & René Stulz & Urs Waelchli, 2013. "Limited Managerial Attention and Corporate Aging," NBER Working Papers 19428, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Davidson, Carl & Heyman, Fredrik & Matusz, Steven & Sjöholm, Fredrik & Zhu, Susan Chun, 2014.
"Global Engagement and the Occupational Structure of Firms,"
2014:22, Lund University, Department of Economics.
- Heyman, Fredrik & Sjöholm, Fredrik & Davidson, Carl & Matusz, Steven & Chun Zhu, Susan, 2014. "Global Engagement and the Occupational Structure of Firms," Working Paper Series 1026, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Jane Voros) or (Michael P. Albert).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.