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Trade liberalization in a globalizing world

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  • Riccardo Faini

    (Università di Roma Tor Vergata, CEPR, IZA and CSLA))

Abstract

Globalization is not only about the rise of trade, FDI, and migration. It is also about the changing linkages among these flows. The main findings of the paper can be summarized as follows. First, at least in the nineties, import trade liberalization fostered not only trade but also inward investment, confirming that trade and FDI toward developing countries have become largely complements. Second, the presence of a skilled labour force is a relevant factor to attract FDI. Moreover, trade policies and the stock of FDI have a positive impact on the incentives to invest in education. This set of findings highlights the possibility of a low equilibrium trap where the lack of human capital discourages FDI and inadequate investment from abroad limits the domestic incentives to acquire education. Rich countries, by encouraging skilled immigration from relatively poor countries, are definitely aggravating such a risk. Third, we find little evidence supporting the contrary argument of a brain gain, where the possibility for skilled workers to migrate abroad raises the return to education and the investment in human capital. Overall, our results highlight the need to study globalization in a fully integrated way, not just as the sum of its different components. They also show that backtracking in one area (e.g. trade) feeds negatively on other areas (e.g. FDI).

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Paper provided by Centro Studi Luca d\'Agliano, University of Milano in its series Development Working Papers with number 192.

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Date of creation: 01 Oct 2004
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Handle: RePEc:csl:devewp:192

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  1. Markusen, James R., 2002. "Multinational Firms and the Theory of International Trade," MPRA Paper 8380, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  2. Francisco Rodriguez & Dani Rodrik, 2001. "Trade Policy and Economic Growth: A Skeptic's Guide to the Cross-National Evidence," NBER Chapters, in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 2000, Volume 15, pages 261-338 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. James R. Markusen & Keith E. Maskus, 1999. "Multinational Firms: Reconciling Theory and Evidence," NBER Working Papers 7163, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Blomström, Magnus & Kokko, Ari, 2003. "Human Capital and Inward FDI," CEPR Discussion Papers 3762, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  5. William J. Collins & Kevin H. O'Rourke & Jeffrey Williamson, 1997. "Were Trade and Factor Mobility Substitutes in History?," NBER Working Papers 6059, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Shatz, Howard J. & Venables, Anthony J., 2000. "The geography of international investment," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2338, The World Bank.
  7. Stark, Oded & Helmenstein, Christian & Prskawetz, Alexia, 1998. "Human Capital Depletion, Human Capital Formation, and Migration. A Blessing in a "Curse"?," Economics Series 55, Institute for Advanced Studies.
  8. Michel Beine & Frédéric Docquier & Hillel Rapoport, 2002. "Brain Drain and LDCs' Growth: Winners and Losers," Working Papers 2002-08, Department of Economics, Bar-Ilan University.
  9. Barro, Robert J & Lee, Jong-Wha, 2001. "International Data on Educational Attainment: Updates and Implications," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 53(3), pages 541-63, July.
  10. Feenstra, Robert C. & Hanson, Gordon H., 1997. "Foreign direct investment and relative wages: Evidence from Mexico's maquiladoras," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(3-4), pages 371-393, May.
  11. Eduardo Borensztein & Jose De Gregorio & Jong-Wha Lee, 1995. "How Does Foreign Direct Investment Affect Economic Growth?," NBER Working Papers 5057, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. Gordon H. Hanson & Raymond J. Mataloni, Jr. & Matthew J. Slaughter, 2001. "Expansion Strategies of U.S. Multinational Firms," NBER Working Papers 8433, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. Linda S. Goldberg & Michael W. Klein, 1999. "International Trade and Factor Mobility: An Empirical Investigation," NBER Working Papers 7196, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  14. Jeffrey A. Frankel & Andrew K. Rose, 2000. "Estimating the Effect of Currency Unions on Trade and Output," NBER Working Papers 7857, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  15. Michel Beine & Frédéric Docquier & Hillel Rapoport, 2001. "Brain drain and economic growth: theory and evidence," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/10449, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  16. Bruce A. Blonigen & Miao Wang, 2004. "Inappropriate Pooling of Wealthy and Poor Countries in Empirical FDI Studies," NBER Working Papers 10378, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  17. Markusen, James R., 1983. "Factor movements and commodity trade as complements," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(3-4), pages 341-356, May.
  18. Faini, Riccardo & Venturini, Alessandra, 1993. "Trade, aid and migrations: Some basic policy issues," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 37(2-3), pages 435-442, April.
  19. repec:fth:geneec:97.01 is not listed on IDEAS
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Cited by:
  1. Checchi, Daniele & De Simone, Gianfranco & Faini, Riccardo, 2007. "Skilled Migration, FDI and Human Capital Investment," IZA Discussion Papers 2795, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  2. Maurice Kugler & Hillel Rapoport, 2005. "Skilled Emigration, Business Networks and Foreign Direct Investment," CESifo Working Paper Series 1455, CESifo Group Munich.
  3. Miren Lafourcade & Elisenda Paluzie Hernandez, 2005. "European Integration, FDI and the Internal Geography of Trade: Evidence from Western European Border Regions," Working Papers in Economics 145, Universitat de Barcelona. Espai de Recerca en Economia.
  4. Heuer, Nina, 2011. "The effect of occupation-specific brain drain on human capital," University of Tuebingen Working Papers in Economics and Finance 7, University of Tuebingen, Faculty of Economics and Social Sciences.
  5. Aroca Gonzalez, Patricio & Maloney, William F., 2005. "Migration, trade, and foreign investment in Mexico," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3601, The World Bank.
  6. Enrico Marelli, 2006. "Globalisation and local labour markets," International Review of Economics, Springer, vol. 53(1), pages 16-48, March.
  7. Piotti, Geny, 2007. "Why do companies relocate? The German discourse on relocation," MPIfG Discussion Paper 07/14, Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies.
  8. Artjoms Ivlevs, 2006. "Migration and Foreign Direct Investment in the Globalization Context: the Case of a Small Open Economy," Development Working Papers 209, Centro Studi Luca d\'Agliano, University of Milano.

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