Trade Liberalization and Growth: New Evidence
AbstractThis paper revisits the empirical evidence on the relationship between economic integration and economic growth. First, we present an updated dataset of openness indicators and trade liberalization dates for a wide cross-section of countries in the 1990s. Second, we extend the Sachs and Warner (1995) study of the relationship between trade openness and economic growth to the 1990s, discussing recent criticisms of their measurement and estimation framework. Our results suggest that the cross-sectional findings of Sachs and Warner are sensitive to the period under consideration. In particular, an updated version of their dichotomous trade policy openness indicator does not enter significantly in growth regressions for the 1990s. Third, and most importantly, we present new evidence on the time paths of economic growth, physical capital investment and openness around episodes of trade policy liberalization. In sharp contrast to our cross-sectional results, we find that liberalization has, on average, robust positive effects on growth, openness and investment rates within countries. We illustrate these large sample findings with detailed case studies in a subsample of representative countries.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 10152.
Date of creation: Dec 2003
Date of revision:
Publication status: published as Wacziarg, Romain and Karen Horn Welch. "Trade Liberalization and Growth: New Evidence." World Bank Economic Review 22, 2 (June 2008): 187-231.
Note: EFG ITI
Contact details of provider:
Postal: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138, U.S.A.
Web page: http://www.nber.org
More information through EDIRC
Other versions of this item:
- F1 - International Economics - - Trade
- F4 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Levine, Ross & Renelt, David, 1991.
"A sensitivity analysis of cross-country growth regressions,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
609, The World Bank.
- Levine, Ross & Renelt, David, 1992. "A Sensitivity Analysis of Cross-Country Growth Regressions," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(4), pages 942-63, September.
- Geert Bekaert & Campbell R. Harvey, 2000.
"Foreign Speculators and Emerging Equity Markets,"
Journal of Finance,
American Finance Association, vol. 55(2), pages 565-613, 04.
- Geert Bekaert & Campbell R. Harvey, 1997. "Foreign Speculators and Emerging Equity Markets," NBER Working Papers 6312, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Geert Bekaert & Campbell R. Harvey, 1997. "Foreign Speculators and Emerging Equity Markets," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 79, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
- Geert Bekaert & Campbell R. Harvey & Christian Lundblad, 2004.
"Does Financial Liberalization Spur Growth?,"
Working Paper Research
53, National Bank of Belgium.
- Tornell, A., 1998.
"Reform from Within,"
650, Harvard - Institute for International Development.
- Aaron Tornell, 1998. "Reform from Within," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1827, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
- Aaron Tornell, 1998. "Reform from Within," NBER Working Papers 6497, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Wacziarg, Romain & Wallack, Jessica Seddon, 2004.
"Trade liberalization and intersectoral labor movements,"
Journal of International Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 64(2), pages 411-439, December.
- Wacziarg, Romain & Seddon, Jessica, 2000. "Trade Liberalization and Intersectoral Labor Movements," Research Papers 1652, Stanford University, Graduate School of Business.
- Jeffrey D. Sachs & Andrew Warner, 1995.
"Economic Reform and the Process of Global Integration,"
Brookings Papers on Economic Activity,
Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 26(1, 25th A), pages 1-118.
- Jeffrey Sachs & Andrew Warner, 1995. "Economic Reform and the Progress of Global Integration," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1733, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
- Francisco Rodriguez & Dani Rodrik, 1999.
"Trade Policy and Economic Growth: a Skeptic's Guide to the Cross-National Evidence,"
9912, Economic Research Forum, revised Apr 1999.
- Francisco Rodriguez & Dani Rodrik, 2001. "Trade Policy and Economic Growth: A Skeptic's Guide to the Cross-National Evidence," NBER Chapters, in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 2000, Volume 15, pages 261-338 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Rodríguez, Francisco & Rodrik, Dani, 1999. "Trade Policy and Economic Growth: A Sceptic's Guide to the Cross-National Evidence," CEPR Discussion Papers 2143, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Acemoglu, Daron & Johnson, Simon & Robinson, James A, 2002. "An African Success Story: Botswana," CEPR Discussion Papers 3219, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- David H. Romer & Jeffrey A. Frankel, 1999. "Does Trade Cause Growth?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(3), pages 379-399, June.
- Wacziarg, Romain, 2000.
"Measuring the Dynamic Gains from Trade,"
1654, Stanford University, Graduate School of Business.
- Edwards, Sebastian, 1992.
"Trade orientation, distortions and growth in developing countries,"
Journal of Development Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 31-57, July.
- Sebastian Edwards, 1991. "Trade Orientation, Distortions and Growth in Developing Countries," NBER Working Papers 3716, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Ben-David, Dan, 1993. "Equalizing Exchange: Trade Liberalization and Income Convergence," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 108(3), pages 653-79, August.
- Alberto F. Ades & Edward L. Glaeser, 1994.
"Evidence on Growth, Increasing Returns and the Extent of the Market,"
NBER Working Papers
4714, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Alberto F. Ades & Edward L. Glaeser, 1999. "Evidence On Growth, Increasing Returns, And The Extent Of The Market," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 114(3), pages 1025-1045, August.
This item has more than 25 citations. To prevent cluttering this page, these citations are listed on a separate page. reading lists or Wikipedia pages:
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ().
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.