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Desigualdad salarial en Colombia 1984-2005: cambios en la composición del mercado laboral y retornos a la educación post-secundaria

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  • Christian Manuel Posso Suárez

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Abstract

En el periodo 1984-2005 se registró un incremento substancial en la desigualdad salarial enespecial a partir de 1995, momento en el cual también se dio un crecimiento significativode la población asalariada con educación post-secundaria. A su vez esta desigualdad fuemás importante dentro del grupo de los más educados. Este documento expone nuevasalternativas para el análisis de la desigualdad salarial en Colombia. Primero, se utiliza unmétodo de descomposición para la desigualdad basado en una estimación condicional de ladistribución de ingresos utilizando la regresión por percentiles; este método descomponelos cambios en la distribución en tres factores: características, coeficientes y residuales.Los resultados muestran que el crecimiento de la desigualdad depende principalmente delos cambios en la distribución de las características de los asalariados para el periodo 1984-2005, resultado contrario a lo planteado por algunos trabajos previos donde se muestra queel crecimiento de la desigualdad depende fundamentalmente de los residuales. La técnicaaquí presentada corrige algunas de las deficiencias del método original de descomposiciónde Juhn, Murphy y Pierce (JMP, 1993). Segundo, utilizando la regresión por percentiles seintenta mostrar que los premios a la educación post-secundaria tienen un rol principal en laexplicación del crecimiento de la desigualdad dentro del grupo de los más educados,particularmente por una caída en el premio en la parte baja de la distribución (50/10) para elperiodo 1995-2005, el cual puede estar asociado a un problema de calidad de la educación.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA in its series BORRADORES DE ECONOMIA with number 005003.

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Length: 31
Date of creation: 01 Sep 2008
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Handle: RePEc:col:000094:005003

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Keywords: Desigualdad de ingresos; Regresión por percentiles; Descomposición deingresos; Retornos a la educación;

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References

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  1. Victor Chernozhukov & Ivan Fernandez-Val & Blaise Melly, 2008. "Inference On Counterfactual Distributions," Boston University - Department of Economics - Working Papers Series wp2008-005, Boston University - Department of Economics.
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Cited by:
  1. Carlos Medina & Christian Posso, . "Technical Change and Polarization of the Labor Market: Evidence for Brazil, Colombia and Mexico," Borradores de Economia 614, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
  2. Ramirez, Francisco A., 2012. "Descomponiendo la Desigualdad Salarial en la República Dominicana: Análisis Empírico para el Periodo 2000-2011
    [Decomposing Wage Inequality in the Dominican Republic: Empirical Analysis for the
    ," MPRA Paper 51993, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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