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Species Preservation and Biodiversity Value: A Real Options Approach

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  • Ilhem Kassar
  • Pierre Lasserre

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Abstract

We evaluate biodiversity in a real options framework, when the resources in use are substitutable. We examine optimal conservation decisions given that a biodiversity loss is irreversible and that future use values are uncertain. While species substitutability is generally believed to reduce the value of diversity, we show that the flexibility associated with substitutability is a source of value. Marginal species value is decreasing in the number of species, but rising and convex in the value of the marginal species. As we show in the two-species homogenous model, increased volatility raises biodiversity value, and a positive correlation between species values both reduces the value of the pool of species and the value of biodiversity. The role played by the correlation between the value of a species and the value of other species, is reminiscent of the Beta of a financial asset. Just like an asset with a negative Beta derives additional value by providing insurance against fluctuations in the market portfolio, a species whose value tends to move in the opposite direction as the species in use derives additional value from its higher probability to be available for substitution if the value of the species in use diminishes. Nous étudions la biodiversité dans un cadre d'options réelles où les ressources sont substituables. Comment optimiser les décisions de conservation quand toute perte de biodiversité est irréversible et les valeurs futures incertaines? Nous montrons que la substituabilité, normalement considérée comme réduisant la valeur d'une espèce, est en fait source de valeur. La valeur marginale est décroissante dans Ie nombre d'espèces mais croissante et convexe dans la valeur de l'espèce marginale. Pour un modèle homogène à deux espèces, nous montrons également que la volatilité est un facteur d'augmentation de la valeur de la biodiversité, tandis que la corrélation réduit tant la valeur totale que la valeur marginale des espèces. Ce rôle de la corrélation entre valeur d'une espèce et valeur des autres espèces rappelle celui du Beta des actifs financiers. De même qu'un actif au Beta négatif tire de la valeur du fait qu'il permet de s'assurer contre les fluctuations du marché, une espèce dont la valeur tend à évoluer en sens inverse de celle de l'espèce en exploitation vaut plus du fait qu'elle a plus de chances de se substituer à cette dernière si celle-ci perd de la valeur.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by CIRANO in its series CIRANO Working Papers with number 2002s-82.

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Date of creation: 01 Sep 2002
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Handle: RePEc:cir:cirwor:2002s-82

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Keywords: Real options; Option value; Biodiversity; Biological portfolio; Substitutability; Species; Assets; Marginal value; Options réelles; valeur d'option; portefeuille biologique; biodiversité; substituabilité; espèces; actifs; valeur marginale;

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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Feng Song & Jinhua Zhao & Scott M. Swinton, 2011. "Switching to Perennial Energy Crops Under Uncertainty and Costly Reversibility," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 93(3), pages 764-779.
  2. Luca Di Corato & Michele Moretto & Sergio Vergalli, 2011. "Land Conversion Pace under Uncertainty and Irreversibility: too fast or too slow?," Working Papers 2011.84, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
  3. Trommetter, M., 2004. "Biodiversity and international stakes : a question of access," Working Papers 200418, Grenoble Applied Economics Laboratory (GAEL).
  4. Rupert Gatti & Timo Goeschl & Ben Groom & Timothy Swanson, 2011. "The Biodiversity Bargaining Problem," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 48(4), pages 609-628, April.
  5. Marcoul, Philippe & Weninger, Quinn, 2008. "Search and Active Learning with Correlated Information: Empirical Evidence from Mid-Atlantic Clam Fishermen," Staff General Research Papers 11601, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
  6. Joubert, J.W. & Luhandjula, M.K. & Ncube, O. & le Roux, G. & de Wet, F., 2007. "An optimization model for the management of a South African game ranch," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 92(1-3), pages 223-239, January.
  7. Erwin, Patrick M. & López-Legentil, Susanna & Schuhmann, Peter W., 2010. "The pharmaceutical value of marine biodiversity for anti-cancer drug discovery," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(2), pages 445-451, December.
  8. Béné, C. & Doyen, L., 2008. "Contribution values of biodiversity to ecosystem performances: A viability perspective," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1-2), pages 14-23, December.
  9. Costello, Christopher & Ward, Michael B., 2007. "Search, bioprospecting, and biodiversity conservation," MPRA Paper 26527, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  10. Anastasios Michailidis & Konstadinos Mattas & Irene Tzouramani & Diamantis Karamouzis, 2009. "A Socioeconomic Valuation of an Irrigation System Project Based on Real Option Analysis Approach," Water Resources Management, Springer, vol. 23(10), pages 1989-2001, August.
  11. Eppink, Florian V. & van den Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M., 2007. "Ecological theories and indicators in economic models of biodiversity loss and conservation: A critical review," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 61(2-3), pages 284-293, March.
  12. Leroux, Anke D. & Martin, Vance L. & Goeschl, Timo, 2009. "Optimal conservation, extinction debt, and the augmented quasi-option value," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 58(1), pages 43-57, July.
  13. de, Vries Frans & Ellis, Ciaran & Goulson, Dave & Hanley, Nicholas & Kleczkowski, Adam, 2013. "Ecological-economic modelling of interactions between wild and commercial bees and pesticide use," Stirling Economics Discussion Papers 2013-10, University of Stirling, Division of Economics.
  14. Pierre Lasserre & Jean-Paul Moatti & Antoine Soubeyran, 2005. "Early Initiation of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapies for Aids: Dynamic choice with Endogenous and Exogenous Learning," CIRANO Working Papers 2005s-34, CIRANO.
  15. Sarr, Mare & Goeschl, Timo & Swanson, Tim, 2008. "The value of conserving genetic resources for R&D: A survey," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 67(2), pages 184-193, September.
  16. Ben Abdallah, Skander & Lasserre, Pierre, 2012. "A real option approach to the protection of a habitat dependent endangered species," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 295-318.
  17. Sims, Charles & Finnoff, David, 2012. "The role of spatial scale in the timing of uncertain environmental policy," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 36(3), pages 369-382.

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