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Gender Segregation Small Firms

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Author Info

  • Kenneth R Troske
  • William J Carrington

Abstract

This paper studies interfirm gender segregation in a unique sample of small employers. We focus on small firms because previous research on interfirm segregation has studied only large firms and because it is easier to link the demographic characteristics of employers and employees in small firms. This latter feature permits an assessment of the role of employer discrimination in creating gender segregation. Our first finding is that interfirm segregation is prevalent among small employers. Indeed men and women rarely work in fully integrated firms. Our second finding is that the education and gender of the business owner strongly influence the gender composition of a firm's workforce. This suggests that employer discrimination may be an important cause of workplace gender segregation. Finally, we estimate that interfirm segregation can account for up to 50% of the gender gap in annual earnings.

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File URL: ftp://ftp2.census.gov/ces/wp/1992/CES-WP-92-13.pdf
File Function: Revised version, 1993
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau in its series Working Papers with number 92-13.

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Length:
Date of creation: Oct 1992
Date of revision: May 1993
Handle: RePEc:cen:wpaper:92-13

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Keywords: CES; economic; research; micro; data; microdata; chief; economist;

References

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  1. Jacob Mincer & Solomon Polacheck, 1974. "Family Investments in Human Capital: Earnings of Women," NBER Chapters, in: Economics of the Family: Marriage, Children, and Human Capital, pages 397-431 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Ashenfelter, Orley & Hannan, Timothy, 1986. "Sex Discrimination and Product Market Competition: The Case of the Banking Industry," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 101(1), pages 149-73, February.
  3. Mincer, Jacob & Polachek, Solomon, 1974. "Family Investment in Human Capital: Earnings of Women," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 82(2), pages S76-S108, Part II, .
  4. Smith, James P & Welch, Finis, 1984. "Affirmative Action and Labor Markets," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 2(2), pages 269-301, April.
  5. Johnson, George & Solon, Gary, 1986. "Estimates of the Direct Effects of Comparable Worth Policy," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(5), pages 1117-25, December.
  6. Alfred R Nucci, 1989. "The Characteristics of Business Owners (CBO) Database," Working Papers 89-9, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
  7. Riach, Peter A & Rich, Judith, 1987. "Testing for Sexual Discrimination in the Labour Market," Australian Economic Papers, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 26(49), pages 165-78, December.
  8. Becker, Gary S., 1971. "The Economics of Discrimination," University of Chicago Press Economics Books, University of Chicago Press, edition 1, number 9780226041162, May.
  9. Armen A. Aichian & Reuben A. Kessel, 1962. "Competition, Monopoly, and the Pursuit of Pecuniary Gain," NBER Chapters, in: Aspects of Labor Economics, pages 157-184 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Akerlof, George A & Yellen, Janet L, 1985. "Unemployment through the Filter of Memory," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 100(3), pages 747-73, August.
  11. Timothy Bates, 1988. "Do black-owned businesses employ minority workers? new evidence," The Review of Black Political Economy, Springer, vol. 16(4), pages 51-64, March.
  12. Jensen, Michael C & Murphy, Kevin J, 1990. "Performance Pay and Top-Management Incentives," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 98(2), pages 225-64, April.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Francine Blau & Patricia Simpson & Deborah Anderson, 1998. "Continuing Progress? Trends in Occupational Segregation in the United States over the 1970s and 1980s," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 4(3), pages 29-71.
  2. Vieira, José A. Cabral & Cardoso, Ana Rute & Portela, Miguel, 2003. "Recruitment and Pay at the Establishment Level: Gender Segregation and the Wage Gap in Portugal," IZA Discussion Papers 789, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  3. Michael Baker & Nicole M. Fortin, 1999. "Occupational Gender Composition and Wages in Canada: 1987-1988," NBER Working Papers 7371, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Brian Headd, 1999. "The Characteristics of Business Owners Database, 1992," Working Papers 99-8, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
  5. Michael Baker & Nicole M. Fortin, 1998. "Gender Composition and Wages: Why is Canada different from the United States?," Working Papers baker-98-02, University of Toronto, Department of Economics.
  6. Kevin T. Reilly & Tony S. Wirjanto, 2004. "The Proportion of Females in the Establishment: Discrimination, Preferences and Technology," Labor and Demography 0407002, EconWPA.
  7. Russo, Giovanni & Ommeren, Jos van, 1997. "Gender differences in recruitment outcomes," Serie Research Memoranda 0015, VU University Amsterdam, Faculty of Economics, Business Administration and Econometrics.
  8. William J. Carrington & Kenneth R. Troske, 1998. "Sex segregation in U.S. manufacturing," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 51(3), pages 445-464, April.
  9. Baker, Michael Fortin, Nicole, 2000. "The Gender Composition and Wages: Why is Canada Different from the United States?," Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series 2000140e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
  10. Michael Baker & Nicole Fortin, 2000. "Comparable Worth Comes to the Private Sector: The Case of Ontario," Econometric Society World Congress 2000 Contributed Papers 0266, Econometric Society.
  11. Nicole M. Fortin & Michael Huberman, 2002. "Occupational Gender Segregation and Women's Wages in Canada: An Historical Perspective," CIRANO Working Papers 2002s-22, CIRANO.
  12. Kenneth R. Troske, 1998. "Evidence on the Employer Size-Wage Premium From Worker-Establishment Matched Data," Labor and Demography 9807001, EconWPA.
  13. Morley Gunderson, 2002. "The Evolution and Mechanics of Pay Equity in Ontario," Canadian Public Policy, University of Toronto Press, vol. 28(s1), pages 117-131, May.

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