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Skills and Talent of Immigrants: A Comparison between the European Union and the United States

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  • Peri, Giovanni

Abstract

The nineties has been a period of increasing migratory flows from less developed countries to industrialized nations. It is instructive to compare the two largest economies in the world, the European Union and the United States, in terms of the magnitude, trends and composition of their migratory inflows. While the two economies are similar in terms of size and level of development, the European Union still lags behind in its ability to attract immigrants and in the degree of internal mobility of its citizens. Moreover we document a general feature that became more prominent during the nineties. While both economies attracted less educated workers (primary school graduates) as well as highly educated workers (college graduates) from less developed countries, the United States have been able to attract “talent†( i.e. the best among the skilled workers) from all over the world at a rate unmatched by the European Union. In fact the U.S. attracted a large number of talents from the European Union itself during the nineties. This “brain drain†(probably driven by the large economic reward granted by the American economy to scientific, technological and professional talent) is worrisome for the European Union. Its ability to keep pace with the economic growth of the United States depends, in fact, on its ability to compete in the scientific and technological fields.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Institute of European Studies, UC Berkeley in its series Institute of European Studies, Working Paper Series with number qt78t8m1n7.

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Date of creation: 04 Mar 2005
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Handle: RePEc:cdl:bineur:qt78t8m1n7

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Keywords: European studies; finance; IES; immigration; Institute of European studies; international; working paper;

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  1. Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf & Zweimüller, Josef, 1996. "Immigration, Trade, and Austrian Unemployment," CEPR Discussion Papers 1346, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  2. Gordon H. Hanson & Antonio Spilimbergo, 1996. "Illegal Immigration, Border Enforcement, and Relative Wages: Evidence from Apprehensions at the U.S.-Mexico Border," IDB Publications 6798, Inter-American Development Bank.
  3. Card, David, 2001. "Immigrant Inflows, Native Outflows, and the Local Labor Market Impacts of Higher Immigration," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 19(1), pages 22-64, January.
  4. David Card, 1989. "The Impact of the Mariel Boatlift on the Miami Labor Market," NBER Working Papers 3069, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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  7. Paul Romer, 1991. "Endogenous Technological Change," NBER Working Papers 3210, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Jagdish Bhagwati & Arvind Panagariya & T. N. Srinivasan, 2004. "The Muddles over Outsourcing," International Trade 0408004, EconWPA.
  9. George J. Borjas, 1988. "Immigration And Self-Selection," NBER Working Papers 2566, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Saint-Paul, Gilles, 2004. "The Brain Drain: Some Evidence from European Expatriates in the United States," IZA Discussion Papers 1310, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  11. George J. Borjas, 2003. "The Labor Demand Curve is Downward Sloping: Reexamining the Impact of Immigration on the Labor Market," NBER Working Papers 9755, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. Randall Filer, 1992. "The Effect of Immigrant Arrivals on Migratory Patterns of Native Workers," NBER Chapters, in: Immigration and the Workforce: Economic Consequences for the United States and Source Areas, pages 245-270 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. Jörn-Steffen Pischke & Johannes Velling, 1997. "Employment Effects Of Immigration To Germany: An Analysis Based On Local Labor Markets," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 79(4), pages 594-604, November.
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Cited by:
  1. Riccardo Crescenzi & A. Rodriguez-Pose & Michael Storper, 2007. "The geographical processes behind innovation: a Europe-United States comparative analysis," Departmental Working Papers of Economics - University 'Roma Tre' 0081, Department of Economics - University Roma Tre.
  2. Ceren Ozgen & Peter Nijkamp & Jacques Poot, 2011. "Immigration And Innovation In European Regions," Norface Discussion Paper Series 2011008, Norface Research Programme on Migration, Department of Economics, University College London.

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