Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

What are the Effects of Input Subsidies on Maize Prices? Evidence from Malawi and Zambia


Author Info

  • Ricker-Gilbert, Jacob
  • Mason, Nicole M.
  • Darko, Francis
  • Jayne, Thomas S.
  • Tembo, Solomon


Millions of smallholder farm households in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are net consumers of staple crops, and millions of poor urban households spend a significant share of their income purchasing staple foods. Recent research has underscored the major effects of changes in food prices on poverty, with the weight of the evidence indicating that rising food prices exacerbate poverty and food insecurity. Large-scale input subsidy programs, particularly for maize, have grown in popularity in SSA over the last decade. An important hypothesized but heretofore empirically untested benefit of these programs is that by raising maize production, the subsidies should put downward pressure on retail maize prices to the benefit of urban consumers and the rural poor, who tend to be net buyers of maize. To inform debates related to this rationale for input subsidies, this study estimates the effects of fertilizer subsidies on retail maize prices in Malawi and Zambia using market or districtlevel panel data covering the 2000/01 to 2011/12 maize marketing years. Malawi and Zambia are ideal case studies because both countries have well-known, large-scale fertilizer subsidy programs where the quantities distributed vary spatially and over time. In addition, the scale of the subsidy programs was large enough in both countries to have substantially affected national maize production, and hence have potentially discernible effects on domestic food prices. The effects of fertilizer subsidies on equilibrium retail maize prices in Malawi and Zambia are estimated via country-specific reduced form panel data econometric models of retail maize prices as a function of subsidized fertilizer and other factors. The models are estimated via first-differencing or the Arellano-Bond (AB) dynamic panel data method. Both estimators control for time constant unobserved effects. The major advantage of the AB approach is that it allows for lagged retail maize prices to affect current retail maize prices. The findings from our study are similar between Malawi and Zambia. They indicate that fertilizer subsidies have either no statistically significant effect on retail maize prices or, more commonly, a statistically significant but very small negative effect on those prices. The results suggest that roughly doubling the size of Malawi’s subsidy program (i.e., increasing the amount of subsidized fertilizer distributed to each district by 4,000 metric tons (MT) per year) only reduces real maize prices by 1.2% to 1.6% on average. In Zambia, roughly doubling the scale of the country’s subsidy program (i.e., by increasing the amount of subsidized fertilizer distributed to each district by 1,000 MT per year) only reduces real maize prices by 1.8% and 2.4% on average. The results are statistically significant at the 10% level or lower for most of the models estimated. It should be noted that even small decreases in maize prices would benefit the many poor rural and urban households that are net buyers of maize. However, empirical evidence presented here does not support the often-asserted claim that large public expenditures on input subsidies have major poverty reducing effects because the programs produce large spillover benefits in the form of substantially lower maize prices. The empirical evidence to date suggests that even the large-scale fertilizer subsidy programs in Sub-Saharan Africa may result in very small, if any, reductions in retail food prices in semi-open economies.

Download Info

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
File URL:
Download Restriction: no

Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Michigan State University, Department of Agricultural, Food, and Resource Economics in its series Food Security Collaborative Working Papers with number 154938.

as in new window
Date of creation: Jun 2013
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:ags:midcwp:154938

Contact details of provider:
Postal: Justin S. Morrill Hall of Agriculture, 446 West Circle Dr., Rm 202, East Lansing, MI 48824-1039
Phone: (517) 355-4563
Fax: (517) 432-1800
Web page:
More information through EDIRC

Related research

Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy; Demand and Price Analysis;

This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
as in new window
  1. Mason, Nicole M. & Jayne, Thomas S. & Myers, Robert J., 2012. "Smallholder Behavioral Responses to Marketing Board Activities in a Dual Channel Marketing System: The Case of Maize in Zambia," 2012 Conference, August 18-24, 2012, Foz do Iguacu, Brazil 126927, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
  2. Burke, William J. & Jayne, Thomas S. & Chapoto, Antony, 2010. "Factors Contributing to Zambia's 2010 Maize Bumper Harvest," Food Security Collaborative Working Papers 97036, Michigan State University, Department of Agricultural, Food, and Resource Economics.
  3. Goletti, Francesco & Babu, Suresh, 1994. "Market liberalization and integration of maize markets in Malawi," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 11(2-3), pages 311-324, December.
  4. International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept., 2012. "Saudi Arabia," IMF Staff Country Reports 12/271, International Monetary Fund.
  5. Robert J. Myers & T.S. Jayne, 2012. "Multiple-Regime Spatial Price Transmission with an Application to Maize Markets in Southern Africa," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 94(1), pages 174-188.
  6. Arellano, Manuel & Bond, Stephen, 1991. "Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 58(2), pages 277-97, April.
  7. International Monetary Fund, 2012. "Republic of Fiji," IMF Staff Country Reports 12/44, International Monetary Fund.
  8. van Campenhout, Bjorn, 2005. "Modelling Trends in Food Market Integration: Method and an Application to Tanzanian Maize Markets," 2005 International Congress, August 23-27, 2005, Copenhagen, Denmark 24718, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
  9. Mason, Nicole M. & Burke, William J. & Shipekesa, Arthur M. & Jayne, Thomas S., 2011. "The 2011 Surplus in Smallholder Maize Production in Zambia: Drivers, Beneficiaries, & Implications for Agricultural & Poverty Reduction Policies," Food Security Collaborative Working Papers 118477, Michigan State University, Department of Agricultural, Food, and Resource Economics.
  10. International Monetary Fund. European Dept., 2012. "Turkey," IMF Staff Country Reports 12/338, International Monetary Fund.
  11. International Monetary Fund. African Dept., 2012. "Liberia," IMF Staff Country Reports 12/340, International Monetary Fund.
  12. Jayne, T. S. & Jones, Stephen, 1997. "Food marketing and pricing policy in Eastern and Southern Africa: A survey," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 25(9), pages 1505-1527, September.
  13. International Monetary Fund. European Dept., 2012. "France," IMF Staff Country Reports 12/342, International Monetary Fund.
  14. Jacob Ricker-Gilbert & Thomas S. Jayne & Ephraim Chirwa, 2010. "Subsidies and Crowding Out: A Double-Hurdle Model of Fertilizer Demand in Malawi," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 93(1), pages 26-42.
  15. Nkonde, Chewe & Mason, Nicole M. & Sitko, Nicholas J. & Jayne, Thomas S., 2011. "Who Gained and Who Lost from Zambia's 2010 Maize Marketing Policies?," Food Security Collaborative Working Papers 99610, Michigan State University, Department of Agricultural, Food, and Resource Economics.
  16. International Monetary Fund, 2012. "Chile," IMF Staff Country Reports 12/267, International Monetary Fund.
  17. Ravallion, Martin, 1990. "Rural Welfare Effects of Food Price Changes under Induced Wage Responses: Theory and Evidence for Bangladesh," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 42(3), pages 574-85, July.
  18. Zhiying Xu & William J. Burke & Thomas S. Jayne & Jones Govereh, 2009. "Do input subsidy programs "crowd in" or "crowd out" commercial market development? Modeling fertilizer demand in a two-channel marketing system," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 40(1), pages 79-94, 01.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
as in new window

Cited by:
  1. Mason, Nicole M. & Jayne, T.S. & Mofya-Mukuka, Rhoda, 2013. "A Review of Zambia’s Agricultural Input Subsidy Programs: Targeting, Impacts, and the Way Forward," Food Security Collaborative Working Papers 162438, Michigan State University, Department of Agricultural, Food, and Resource Economics.


This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.


Access and download statistics


When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ags:midcwp:154938. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (AgEcon Search).

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.