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Macroeconomic Policies and Growth

In: Productivity and Growth

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Author Info

  • Palle Andersen

    (Reserve Bank of Australia)

  • David Gruen

    (Reserve Bank of Australia)

Abstract

While economic theory is largely mute on the question of whether macroeconomic policies affect long-run growth, an examination of the experience of different countries over various periods and the policies they pursued, lends strong support to the idea that macro policies do play a role in the growth process. A macroeconomic policy framework conducive to growth can be characterised by five features: a low and predictable inflation rate; an appropriate real interest rate; a stable and sustainable fiscal policy; a competitive and predictable real exchange rate; and a balance of payments that is regarded as viable. Countries with these macroeconomic characteristics tend to grow faster than those without them, though there are many individual cases of both developing and developed countries suggesting that satisfying only some of these conditions does not sustain strong growth. It is also important to recognise that the direction of causation is somewhat ambiguous: while good macro outcomes should be conducive to growth, strong growth is also conducive to good macroeconomic outcomes. The paper presents a wide-ranging examination of both theoretical and empirical evidence on the many ways macroeconomic policies may influence economic growth. Given monetary policy’s crucial role in determining the inflation rate in the longer run, there is a particular emphasis on the relationship between inflation and growth. The following five broad conclusions are drawn. First, although growth models assign a major role to capital accumulation, there is little evidence that aggregate investment yields excess returns, and so special policy incentives to boost aggregate investment appear inappropriate. Second, countries with low national saving invest less and grow more slowly than they would if saving were higher. Ultimately, the extent to which a country can rely on foreign savings to fund domestic investment and growth depends on the rate of capital inflow the market accepts as sust

(This abstract was borrowed from another version of this item.)

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Bibliographic Info

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This chapter was published in: Palle Andersen & Jacqueline Dwyer & David Gruen (ed.) Productivity and Growth, Reserve Bank of Australia, pages , 1995.

This item is provided by Reserve Bank of Australia in its series RBA Annual Conference Volume with number acv1995-18.

Handle: RePEc:rba:rbaacv:acv1995-18

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Related research

Keywords: Australian macroeconomic policy; reform; long-run growth trends; growth theories; inflation and growth; external constraints;

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References

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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Frederic S. Mishkin & Andrew Crockett & Michael P. Dooley & Montek S. Ahluwalia, 2003. "Financial Policies," NBER Chapters, in: Economic and Financial Crises in Emerging Market Economies, pages 93-154 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Frederic S Mishkin, 1997. "Strategies for Controlling Inflation," RBA Annual Conference Volume, in: Philip Lowe (ed.), Monetary Policy and Inflation Targeting Reserve Bank of Australia.
  3. Frederic S. Mishkin & Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel, 2001. "One Decade of Inflation Targeting in the World: What Do We Know and What Do We Need to Know?," NBER Working Papers 8397, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Frederic S. Mishkin, 2007. "Will monetary policy become more of a science?," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2007-44, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  5. Frederic S. Mishkin, 2000. "What should central banks do?," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Nov, pages 1-14.
  6. Mishkin, Frederic S., 2001. "Financial policies and the prevention of financial crises in emerging market economies," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2683, The World Bank.
  7. Frederic S. Mishkin, 2001. "Financial Policies and the Prevention of Financial Crises in Emerging Market Countries," NBER Working Papers 8087, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Bucciarelli Edgardo & Pagliari Carmen & Muratore Fabrizio, 2010. "European Labour Productivity And Corporate E-Learning Activities: An Empirical Analysis," Annals of Faculty of Economics, University of Oradea, Faculty of Economics, vol. 1(1), pages 170-177, July.
  9. Joon-Ho Hahm & Frederic S. Mishkin, 2000. "Causes of the Korean Financial Crisis: Lessons for Policy," NBER Working Papers 7483, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Frederic S. Mishkin, 1997. "The causes and propagation of financial instability : lessons for policy makers," Proceedings - Economic Policy Symposium - Jackson Hole, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, pages 55-96.
  11. Frederic S. Mishkin, 2008. "Does Stabilizing Inflation Contribute To Stabilizing Economic Activity?," NBER Working Papers 13970, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. Frederic S. Mishkin, 2011. "Monetary Policy Strategy: Lessons From The Crisis," Chapters, European Central Bank.

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