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Leistungs- oder Bedarfsgerechtigkeit? Über einen normativen Zielkonflikt des Wohlfahrtsstaats und seiner Bedeutung für die Bewertung des eigenen Erwerbseinkommens

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Author Info

  • Liebig, Stefan
  • Schupp, Jürgen

Abstract

Der Beitrag analysiert den Zielkonflikt zwischen Leistungs- und Bedarfsgerechtigkeit in modernen Wohlfahrtsstaaten und das fundamentale Problem, weshalb die Abgabenund Steuerlast von den Bürgern akzeptiert wird. Es wird die Frage beantwortet, inwieweit ein auf der Makroebene der Gesellschaft bestehendes Steuerungsproblem moderner Wohlfahrtsstaaten auch in der individuellen Wahrnehmung Gerechtigkeitsprobleme erzeugt. Anhand von repräsentativen Befragungsergebnissen eines theoriegeleiteten Erhebungsmoduls der Längsschnittstudie Sozio- oekonomisches Panel (SOEP) aus den Jahren 2005 und 2007 wird untersucht, wie Erwerbstätige ihr Einkommen unter dem Aspekt der Lohngerechtigkeit bewerten und welche Bedeutung dabei wohlfahrtsstaatliche Eingriffe haben. Ein zentrales Ergebnis der Analysen stellt der vergleichsweise hohe Anteil derjenigen dar, die ihr Erwerbseinkommen als gerecht wahrnehmen. Der in der Literatur für die Makroebene der Gesellschaft konstatierte normative Zielkonflikt zwischen Leistungs- und Bedarfsgerechtigkeit scheint auf der individuellen Ebene nicht wirklich zu bestehen, wie der Beitrag sowohl theoretisch als auch empirisch zu zeigen versucht. Ein bedeutsames empirisches Ergebnis ist, dass das subjektive Empfinden gerechter Entlohnung nicht geschmälert wird durch die Abgabenbelastung des eigenen Einkommens. Auch Bezieher hoher Einkommen beurteilen ihre Einkommen keineswegs als ungerecht. Ein weiteres Ergebnis der Analysen besteht darin, dass Transferzahlungen des Staates die individuellen Ungerechtigkeitsempfindungen im Hinblick auf das eigene Einkommen nicht kompensieren können; offen erkennbare Transferzahlungen werden von den erwerbstätigen Empfängern möglicherweise als diskriminierend empfunden. -- The article analyzes the conflict of social justice norms within modem welfare states - the guarantee of just compensation for individual efforts and the provision of support based on individual need - in order to answer the fundamental question of why citizens accept the financial burden of welfare states. We ask if modem welfare states' governance problems at the macrosocial level lead to perceptions of injustice at the individual level. Based on representative data from a theory-driven supplemental survey to the longitudinal German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) study, we investigate how employed persons evaluate the fairness of their own earnings and the effects of welfare state interventions. An important finding is the high percentage of employed persons in Germany who considered their income to be fair. The article shows - both empirically and theoretically - that the normative conflict between effort and need based concepts of justice posited in the literature at the macrosocial level does not exist at the individual level. An important empirical result is that the subjective perception of being paid fairly is not decreased by a higher tax burden on individual income. Furthermore, high-income earners by no means perceive their income as unjust. A further important result of the analysis is the finding that government transfers do not have a moderating effect on perceived injustice of personal income; openly recognizable transfer payments may even be perceived as discriminatory.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by ZBW - German National Library of Economics in its journal EconStor Open Access Articles.

Volume (Year): (2008)
Issue (Month): ()
Pages: 7-30

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Handle: RePEc:zbw:espost:73857

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