Changing rewards in contests: Has the three-point rule brought more offense to soccer?
AbstractIn the mid-nineties FIFA decided to increase from two to three the number of points assigned to the winning team of a soccer match played under traditional round-robin national leagues. Since a game of soccer can be regarded as a contest, FIFA's measure provides an interesting case-study for analysing how a change in the system of rewards (from a zero to a non-zero sum rule) may affect the contestants' equilibrium behaviour. In this paper we try to assess, both theoretically and empirically, whether FIFA's new point rule has changed soccer towards a more offensive game, in which teams adopt more risky strategies. In particular, we evaluate the "naïve hypothesis" according to which the measure would induce every team to play always more offensively, and we explore the extent to which the change in teams' behaviour may be affected by quality differentials between teams. Our most important hypothesis is that when the asymmetry between opposing teams is large enough, an increase in the reward for victory induces the weaker team to play more defensively, rather than the opposite. By looking at a subset of matches held in the Portuguese first division league, which approximate the conditions of our model, we find support for this hypothesis.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Springer in its journal Empirical Economics.
Volume (Year): 27 (2002)
Issue (Month): 4 ()
Note: received: July 1999/Final version received: May 2001
Contact details of provider:
Postal: Stumpergasse 56, A-1060 Vienna
Phone: ++43 - (0)1 - 599 91 - 0
Fax: ++43 - (0)1 - 599 91 - 555
Web page: http://link.springer.de/link/service/journals/00181/index.htm
More information through EDIRC
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- L83 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Services - - - Sports; Gambling; Restaurants; Recreation; Tourism
- D81 - Microeconomics - - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty - - - Criteria for Decision-Making under Risk and Uncertainty
You can help add them by filling out this form.
CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
- Geyer, Hannah, 2008. "Theoretische Analyse der Strategienwahl unter der Zwei- und Drei-Punkte-Regel im Fußball," IÃB-Diskussionspapiere 1/08, University of Münster, Institute for Economic Education.
- Giancarlo Moschini, 2010.
"Incentives And Outcomes In A Strategic Setting: The 3-Points-For-A-Win System In Soccer,"
Western Economic Association International, vol. 48(1), pages 65-79, 01.
- Moschini, GianCarlo, 2008. "Incentives and Outcomes in a Strategic Setting: The 3-Points-For-A-Win System in Soccer," Staff General Research Papers 12942, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
- Stefan Wagner, 2010. "Managerial succession and organizational performance-evidence from the German Soccer League," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 31(6), pages 415-430.
- Geyer, Hannah, 2008. "Auswechselverhalten im Fußball: Eine theoretische und empirische Analyse," IÃB-Diskussionspapiere 5/08, University of Münster, Institute for Economic Education.
- Kenneth Linna & Evan Moore & Rodney Paul & Andrew Weinbach, 2014. "The Effects of the Clock and Kickoff Rule Changes on Actual and Market-Based Expected Scoring in NCAA Football," International Journal of Financial Studies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 2(2), pages 179-192, April.
- Lee, Yoong Hon & Parinduri, Rasyad, 2013. "Does the Three-Point Rule Make Soccer More Exciting? Evidence from a Regression Discontinuity Design," MPRA Paper 48467, University Library of Munich, Germany.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Guenther Eichhorn) or (Christopher F Baum).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.