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Financement des politiques du marché du travail et protection de l'emploi

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  • Olivier l'Haridon
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    Abstract

    [fre] Cet article s’intéresse au lien entre la forme de la protection de l’emploi et les politiques liées au budget de l’indemnisation du chômage. A cet effet, nous étudions les interactions entre politiques de protection de l’emploi , indemnisation du chômage et subventions à l’embauche dans le cadre d’un modèle d’appariement en vue d’analyser leurs éventuelles complémentarités et les conditions de leur formation. Les politiques de protection de l’emploi sont envisagées sous deux formes : une réforme de la protection de l’emploi existante en Europe, prenant la forme de coûts administratifs de licenciement, et l’introduction d’une taxe sur les licenciements finançant le budget de l’indemnisation du chômage, inspirée du système d’experience rating américain . Il apparaît numériquement que la forme prise par la protection de l’emploi est déterminante, non seulement en termes de taux de chômage, mais également en regard du mode d’ajustement du budget de l’indemnisation du chômage. Les complémentarités entre la politique de protection de l’emploi et l’indemnisation du chômage dépendent fortement de la forme prise par la protection de l’emploi : coûts administratifs ou système d’experience rating. [eng] Labour Market Policies Budget and Job Protection.. This article focuses on the links between the form of employment protection and two elements of the labour market policies budget : unemployment benefits and hiring subsidies. We study the complementarities of such policies in a standard matching model of employment. In our model two types of employment protection reforms are investigated : a reform of the existing job protection policies in Europe (regulatory costs of lay-offs ) and the introduction of a US-style “ experience rating scheme ”. Our simulations show that the design of job protection is a crucial parameter in determining the effect of these policies on unemployment and interacts strongly with the unemployment benefit financing policy. The results suggest that the complementarities between job protection and unemployment benefit policies depend heavily on the precise form of the employment protection.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Économie & prévision.

    Volume (Year): 168 (2005)
    Issue (Month): 2 ()
    Pages: 43-62

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    Handle: RePEc:prs:ecoprv:ecop_0249-4744_2005_num_168_2_7419

    Note: DOI:10.3406/ecop.2005.7419
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    Web page: http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/revue/ecop

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    1. Belot, Michèle & van Ours, Jan C, 2000. "Does the Recent Success of some OECD Countries in Lowering their Unemployment Rates lie in the Clever Design of their Labour Market Reforms?," CEPR Discussion Papers 2492, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    2. Mortensen, Dale T & Pissarides, Christopher A, 1994. "Job Creation and Job Destruction in the Theory of Unemployment," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 61(3), pages 397-415, July.
    3. Pierre Cahuc & Franck Malherbet, 2001. "Unemployment Compensation Finance and Labor Market Rigidity," Working Papers 2001-37, Centre de Recherche en Economie et Statistique.
    4. L'Haridon, Olivier & Malherbet, Franck, 2002. "Unemployment Compensation Finance and Aggregate Employment Fluctuations," CEPR Discussion Papers 3614, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    5. Pietro Garibaldi & Giovanni L. Violante, 2005. "The Employment Effects of Severance Payments with Wage Rigidities," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 115(506), pages 799-832, October.
    6. Stephen Nickell, 1997. "Unemployment and Labor Market Rigidities: Europe versus North America," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 11(3), pages 55-74, Summer.
    7. Rocheteau, Guillaume, 1999. "Balanced-Budget Rules and Indeterminacy of the Equilibrium Unemployment Rate," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 51(3), pages 399-409, July.
    8. Christopher A. Pissarides, 2000. "Equilibrium Unemployment Theory, 2nd Edition," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262161877, December.
    9. Orszag, Mike & Snower, Dennis J., 1998. "Anatomy of Policy Complementarities," CEPR Discussion Papers 1963, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    10. Olivier Blanchard & Justin Wolfers, 1999. "The Role of Shocks and Institutions in the Rise of European Unemployment: The Aggregate Evidence," NBER Working Papers 7282, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    11. Barbara Petrongolo & Christopher Pissarides, 2000. "Looking into the black box: a survey of the matching function," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 2122, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    12. Layard, Richard & Nickell, Stephen & Jackman, Richard, 2005. "Unemployment: Macroeconomic Performance and the Labour Market," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199279173, September.
    13. Mortensen, Dale T & Pissarides, Christopher, 1999. "New Developments in Models of Search in the Labour Market," CEPR Discussion Papers 2053, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    14. Alberto Alesina & Roberto Perotti, 1997. "Fiscal Adjustments in OECD Countries: Composition and Macroeconomic Effects," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 44(2), pages 210-248, June.
    15. Hosios, Arthur J, 1990. "On the Efficiency of Matching and Related Models of Search and Unemployment," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 57(2), pages 279-98, April.
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