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Return Migration and Occupational Change: The Case of Pakistani Migrants Returned from the Middle East

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  • G.M. Arif

    (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad.)

  • M. Irfan

    (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad.)

Abstract

This paper examines the factors affecting occupational composition of Pakistani workers upon their return from Middle East employment by using the 1986 ILO/ARTEP Survey of Return Migrant Households. In view of the concentration of workers in lowstatus occupations prior to migration, there was a great incentive for them to change these occupations after return. The study shows that the economic resources gained from overseas employment gave migrants the strength to seek independent employment, and there was a clear move out of the production-service occupations into business and agriculture occupations. This movement was strongly related to migrants’ length of stay in the Middle East. Since the occupational structure of the general population remained almost unchanged in the 1970s and 1980s, the employment trends exhibited by return migrants could largely be attributed to overseas migration. However, the study shows that businesses and farms established by migrant workers were small-scale.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Pakistan Institute of Development Economics in its journal The Pakistan Development Review.

Volume (Year): 36 (1997)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
Pages: 1-37

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Handle: RePEc:pid:journl:v:36:y:1997:i:1:p:1-37

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  1. M. Ghaffar Chaudhry & Ghulam Mustafa Chaudhry, 1992. "Trend of Rural Employment and Wages in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 31(4), pages 803-815.
  2. Mayhew, Ken & Rosewell, Bridget, 1981. "Occupational Mobility in Britain," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 43(3), pages 225-55, August.
  3. Alain Lefebvre, 1990. "International Labour Migration from Two Pakistani Villages with Different Forms of Agriculture," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 29(1), pages 59-90.
  4. Prema-chandra Athukorala, 1990. "International Contract Migration And The Reintegration of Return Migrants, The Experience of Sri Lanka," Working Papers 1990.09, School of Economics, La Trobe University.
  5. Andrew M. Gill, 1989. "The role of discrimination in determining occupational structure," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 42(4), pages 610-623, July.
  6. Georg Stauth, 1987. "Remigration and Social Change - Prospects for the Migrant Worker Sending Countries of the Middle East," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 26(4), pages 735-744.
  7. Boskin, Michael J, 1974. "A Conditional Logit Model of Occupational Choice," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 82(2), pages 389-98, Part I, M.
  8. Randall S. Brown & Marilyn Moon & Barbara S. Zoloth, 1980. "Occupational attainment and segregation by sex," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 33(4), pages 506-517, July.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Démurger, Sylvie & Xu, Hui, 2011. "Return Migrants: The Rise of New Entrepreneurs in Rural China," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(10), pages 1847-1861.
  2. Naushin Mahmood, 2009. "Population and Development Demographic Research at PIDE," PIDE Books, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, number 2009:1 edited by Rashid Amjad & Aurangzeb A. Hashmi, June.
  3. Muhammad Irfan, 2010. "A Review of the Labour Market Research at PIDE 1957-2009," PIDE Books, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, number 2010:1 edited by Rashid Amjad & Aurangzeb A. Hashmi, June.
  4. Mezger Kveder, Cora Leonie & Flahaux, Marie-Laurence, 2013. "Returning to Dakar: A Mixed Methods Analysis of the Role of Migration Experience for Occupational Status," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 223-238.
  5. Luis Miguel Tovar Cuevas & María Teresa Victoria Paredes, 2013. "Migración internacional de retorno y emprendimiento: revisión de la literatura," Revista de Economía Institucional, Universidad Externado de Colombia - Facultad de Economía, vol. 15(29), pages 41-65, July-Dece.
  6. G. M. Arif & Hina Nazli & Rashida Haq, 2000. "Rural Non-agriculture Employment and Poverty in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 39(4), pages 1089-1110.
  7. Mohammad, Irfan, 1999. "Rural non-farm sector in Pakistan," MPRA Paper 38152, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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