Rural Non-agriculture Employment and Poverty in Pakistan
AbstractThere is ample evidence that poverty, which declined rapidly in Pakistan in the 1980s, has returned in the 1990s [Amjad and Kemal (1997); Ali and Tahir (1999); Jafri (1999); Qureshi and Arif (2001)]. Consequently large number of Pakistanis, more than one-third of the total population, live currently far below what can reasonably be regarded as a decent standard of living. Poverty has generally been higher in rural areas than in urban areas. This gap could not be bridged overtime; still the greatest degree of poverty is found in the countryside. To address rural poverty, policy-makers have long been looking to the growth potential of the farm sector of the rural economy. Non-agricultural activities in rural areas have received little attention. This neglect, however, may be socially costly. It has been shown in several recent empirical studies that nonfarm activities occupy an important place in rural economies throughout the developing world [Hazell and Haggblade (1993); Adams and He (1995); Bakht (1996); Sen (1996); Lanjouw (1999)]. They expand quite rapidly in response to agriculture development, and therefore merit special attention in the design of strategies concerning poverty alleviation in rural areas. The rural nonfarm sector in Pakistan, like many in other developing countries, is a heterogeneous sector covering a wide spectrum of activities. The pursuit of this diversification leads one to explore the potentials of the whole range of nonfarm activities. There is a considerable body of literature on poverty in Pakistan. This literature, however, has largely ignored the importance of nonfarm sector in poverty alleviation. Only few recent studies, based on relatively small sample size, have examined linkages between rural nonfarm sector and poverty.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Pakistan Institute of Development Economics in its journal The Pakistan Development Review.
Volume (Year): 39 (2000)
Issue (Month): 4 ()
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Rashid Amjad & A.R. Kemal, 1997. "Macroeconomic Policies and their Impact on Poverty Alleviation in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 36(1), pages 39-68.
- G.M. Arif & M. Irfan, 1997. "Return Migration and Occupational Change: The Case of Pakistani Migrants Returned from the Middle East," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 36(1), pages 1-37.
- Lanjouw, Peter, 1999. "Rural Nonagricultural Employment and Poverty in Ecuador," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 48(1), pages 91-122, October.
- Adams, Richard H. Jr. & He, Jane J., 1995. "Sources of income inequality and poverty in rural Pakistan:," Research reports 102, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Zafar Mueen Nasir, 2001. "Poverty and Labour Market Linkages in Pakistan," MIMAP Technical Paper Series 2001:07, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics.
- Haggblade, Steven & Hazell, Peter B. & Brown, James, 1988.
"Farm-nonfarm linkages in rural sub-Saharan Africa,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
6, The World Bank.
- Mohammad, Irfan & Amjad, Rashid, 1994. "Poverty in rural Pakistan," MPRA Paper 38335, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Lanjouw, Jean O. & Lanjouw, Peter, 1995. "Rural nonfarm employment : a survey," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1463, The World Bank.
- Munir Ahmad, 2003. "Agricultural Productivity, Efficiency, and Rural Poverty in Irrigated Pakistan: A Stochastic Production FrontiermAnalysis," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 42(3), pages 219-248.
- Talat Anwar & Sarfraz K. Qureshi, 2002. "Trends in Absolute Poverty in Pakistan: 1990-91 and 2001," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 41(4), pages 859-878.
- Mahmood, Moazam, 2006. "Poverty reduction in Pakistan : the strategic impact of macro and employment policies," ILO Working Papers 392050, International Labour Organization.
- Rashida Haq, 2001. "Occupational Profile of Poverty in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 40(4), pages 1093-1104.
- World Bank, 2007. "Social Protection in Pakistan : Managing Household Risks and Vulnerability," World Bank Other Operational Studies 7660, The World Bank.
- G. M., Arif & Ahmad, Munir, 2001. "Poverty across the agro- ecological zones in rural Pakistan," MPRA Paper 37681, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Arif, G.M, 2004. "Bonded labour in agriculture : a rapid assessment in Punjab and north west frontier province, Pakistan," ILO Working Papers 367533, International Labour Organization.
- Arshad Zaman, 2001. "The Economics of Stateless Nations: Sovereign Debt and Popular Well-being in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 40(4), pages 1121-1134.
- repec:pid:wpaper:2012:5 is not listed on IDEAS
- A. R. Kemal, 2003. "Structural Adjustment and Poverty in Pakistan," MIMAP Technical Paper Series 2003:14, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics.
- Usman Mustafa & Waqar Malik & Mohammad Sharif, 2001. "Globalisation and Its Implications for Agriculture, Food Security, and Poverty in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 40(4), pages 767-786.
- Imran Sharif Chaudhry & Shahnawaz Malik & Abo ul Hassan, 2009. "The Impact of Socioeconomic and Demographic Variables on Poverty: A Village Study," Lahore Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics, vol. 14(1), pages 39-68, Jan-Jun.
- G. M. Arif & Shujaat Farooq, 2012. "Poverty Reduction in Pakistan: Learning from the Experience of China," PIDE Monograph Series 2012:5, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics.
- Rashida Haq & Mohammad Ali Bhatti, 2001. "Estimating Poverty in Pakistan The Non-food Consumption Share Approach," PIDE-Working Papers 2001:183, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics.
- Muhammad Irfan, 2010. "A Review of the Labour Market Research at PIDE 1957-2009," PIDE Books, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, number 2010:1 edited by Rashid Amjad & Aurangzeb A. Hashmi, September.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Khurram Iqbal).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.