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Access to Finance: An Unfinished Agenda

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  • Thorsten Beck
  • Asli Demirgüç-Kunt

Abstract

Recent data compilations show that many poor and nonpoor people in many developing countries face a high degree of financial exclusion and high barriers in access to finance. Theory and empirical evidence point to the critical role that improved access to finance has in promoting growth and reducing income inequality. An extensive literature shows the channels through which finance promotes enterprise growth and improves aggregate resource allocation. There is less evidence at the household level, however, and on the effectiveness of policies to overcome financial exclusion. The article summarizes recent efforts to measure and analyze the impact of access to finance and discusses the unfinished research agenda. Copyright The Author 2008. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / the world bank . All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oxfordjournals.org, Oxford University Press.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by World Bank Group in its journal The World Bank Economic Review.

Volume (Year): 22 (2008)
Issue (Month): 3 (November)
Pages: 383-396

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Handle: RePEc:oup:wbecrv:v:22:y:2008:i:3:p:383-396

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References

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  1. Haselmann, Rainer & Pistor, Katharina & Vig, Vikrant, 2006. "How Law Affects Lending," MPRA Paper 157, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  2. Dean S. Karlan, 2005. "Social Connections and Group Banking," Working Papers 181, Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Research Program in Development Studies..
  3. Gine, Xavier & Townsend, Robert M., 2003. "Evaluation of financial liberalization : a general equilibrium model with constrained occupation choice," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3014, The World Bank.
  4. Nava Ashraf & Dean Karlan & Wesley Yin, 2005. "Deposit Collectors," Working Papers 930, Economic Growth Center, Yale University.
  5. Ana Carla A. Costa & Joao M.P. De Mello, 2006. "Judicial Risk and Credit Market Performance: Micro Evidence from Brazilian Payroll Loans," NBER Working Papers 12252, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Inessa Love, 2003. "Financial Development and Financing Constraints: International Evidence from the Structural Investment Model," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 16(3), pages 765-791, July.
  7. Xavier Giné & Robert Townsend & James Vickery, 2007. "Patterns of rainfall insurance participation in rural India," Staff Reports 302, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  8. Dean Karlan & Martin Valdivia, 2006. "Teaching entrepreneurship: Impact of business training on microfinance clients and institutions," Natural Field Experiments 00282, The Field Experiments Website.
  9. Mark M. Pitt & Shahidur R. Khandker, 1998. "The Impact of Group-Based Credit Programs on Poor Households in Bangladesh: Does the Gender of Participants Matter?," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 106(5), pages 958-996, October.
  10. Jeffrey Wurgler, 1999. "Financial Markets And The Allocation Of Capital," Yale School of Management Working Papers ysm123, Yale School of Management, revised 01 Mar 2001.
  11. de la Torre, Augusto & Gozzi, Juan Carlos & Schmukler, Sergio L., 2007. "Innovative experiences in access to finance : market friendly roles for the visible hand ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4326, The World Bank.
  12. Oded Galor & Joseph Zeira, 2013. "Income Distribution and Macroeconomics," Working Papers 2013-12, Brown University, Department of Economics.
  13. Beck, Thorsten & de la Torre, Augusto, 2006. "The basic analytics of access to financial services," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4026, The World Bank.
  14. John Gibson & David McKenzie & Halahingano Rohorua, 2006. "How Cost Elastic are Remittances? Estimates from Tongan Migrants in New Zealand," Working Papers in Economics 06/02, University of Waikato, Department of Economics.
  15. Klapper, Leora & Laeven, Luc & Rajan, Raghuram, 2006. "Entry regulation as a barrier to entrepreneurship," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 82(3), pages 591-629, December.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Carmen Hoyo & Ximena Pena & David Tuesta, 2013. "Demand factors that influence financial inclusion in Mexico. Analysis of the barriers based on the ENIF survey," Working Papers 1337, BBVA Bank, Economic Research Department.
  2. Afandi, Elvin & Kermani, Majid, 2012. "The Relationship between Trust and a Firm’s Access to Financing: Evidence from Transitional Countries," MPRA Paper 46998, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  3. Carmen Hoyo & Ximena Pena & David Tuesta, 2013. "Factores de demanda que influyen en la Inclusion Financiera en Mexico. Analisis de las barreras a partir de la ENIF," Working Papers 1336, BBVA Bank, Economic Research Department.
  4. Menkhoff, Lukas & Neuberger, Doris & Rungruxsirivorn, Ornsiri, 2012. "Collateral and its substitutes in emerging markets’ lending," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(3), pages 817-834.
  5. Menkhoff, Lukas & Rungruxsirivorn, Ornsiri, 2011. "Do Village Funds Improve Access to Finance? Evidence from Thailand," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 110-122, January.
  6. Carmen Kislat & Lukas Menkhoff & Doris Neuberger, 2013. "The Use of Collateral in Formal and Informal Lending," Kiel Working Papers 1879, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
  7. Morgan, Horatio M., 2013. "Financial Development and Economic Growth: New Lessons from Small Open Economies," MPRA Paper 49842, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  8. Cull, Robert & Scott, Kinnon, 2009. "Measuring household usage of financial services : does it matter how or whom You Ask ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5048, The World Bank.
  9. Martijn Boermans & Daan Willebrands, 2012. "Financial constraints, risk taking and firm performance: Recent evidence from microfinance clients in Tanzania," DNB Working Papers 358, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
  10. Menkhoff, Lukas & Rungruxsirivorn, Ornsiri, 2009. "Village Funds and Access to Finance in Rural Thailand," Diskussionspapiere der Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Leibniz Universität Hannover dp-417, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Fakultät.

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