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Self-Employment Status: The Role of State Dependence and Initial Circumstances

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  • Andrew Henley

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Abstract

This paper uses British longitudinal data to model self-employment status. In contrast to previous studies, the modelling approach accounts for state-dependence and unexplained heterogeneity effects. The paper concludes that state dependence is an important influence on self-employment choice. Someone self-employed last year is, controlling for observable and unobservable influences, 30 percentage points more likely to be self-employed this year than someone who was in paid employment a year ago. We also find significant individual heterogeneity in the probability of self-employment, with significant explained influences operating through gender, educational attainment, occupation, spouse's self-employment, and parental and educational background. Significant, though quantitatively smaller influences come though initial financial circumstance and current house price movements. Local labour market shocks do not appear significantly to influence self-employment choice. This we conclude that the autoregressive nature of self-employment time-series would appear to be a structural rather than a cyclical phenomenon.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Springer in its journal Small Business Economics.

Volume (Year): 22 (2004)
Issue (Month): 1 (02)
Pages: 67-82

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Handle: RePEc:kap:sbusec:v:22:y:2004:i:1:p:67-82

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Web page: http://www.springerlink.com/link.asp?id=100338

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References

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  1. Blanchflower, David G & Oswald, Andrew J, 1998. "What Makes an Entrepreneur?," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 16(1), pages 26-60, January.
  2. Heckman, James, 2013. "Sample selection bias as a specification error," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 31(3), pages 129-137.
  3. Lindh, Thomas & Ohlsson, Henry, 1996. "Self-Employment and Windfall Gains: Evidence from the Swedish Lottery," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 106(439), pages 1515-26, November.
  4. Douglas Holtz-Eakin & David Joulfaian & Harvey S. Rosen, 1994. "Entrepreneurial Decisions and Liquidity Constraints," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 25(2), pages 334-347, Summer.
  5. Le, Anh T, 1999. " Empirical Studies of Self-Employment," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 13(4), pages 381-416, September.
  6. Arulampalam, Wiji, 1999. " Practitioners' Corner: A Note on Estimated Coefficients in Random Effects Probit Models," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 61(4), pages 597-602, November.
  7. Evans, David S & Jovanovic, Boyan, 1989. "An Estimated Model of Entrepreneurial Choice under Liquidity Constraints," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(4), pages 808-27, August.
  8. Taylor, Mark P., 1994. "Earnings, independence or unemployment: why become self -employed?," ISER Working Paper Series 26, Institute for Social and Economic Research.
  9. Black, Jane & de Meza, David & Jeffreys, David, 1996. "House Price, the Supply of Collateral and the Enterprise Economy," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 106(434), pages 60-75, January.
  10. Cowling, Marc & Mitchell, Peter, 1997. "The Evolution of U.K. Self-Employment: A Study of Government Policy and the Role of the Macroeconomy," The Manchester School of Economic & Social Studies, University of Manchester, vol. 65(4), pages 427-42, September.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Lawless, Martina, 2005. "Firm Export Participation: Entry, Spillovers and Tradability," Research Technical Papers 6/RT/05, Central Bank of Ireland.
  2. Erik Stam & David Audretsch & Joris Meijaard, 2006. "Renascent Entrepreneurship - Entrepreneurial Preferences Subsequent to Firm Exit," Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy 2006-06, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group.
  3. Andrew Burke & Felix FitzRoy & Michael Nolan, 2008. "What makes a die-hard entrepreneur? Beyond the ‘employee or entrepreneur’ dichotomy," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 31(2), pages 93-115, August.
  4. Erik Stam & David Audretsch & Joris Meijaard, 2008. "Renascent entrepreneurship," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 18(3), pages 493-507, August.
    • Stam, F.C. & Audretsch, D.B. & Meijaard, J., 2006. "Renascent Entrepreneurship," ERIM Report Series Research in Management ERS-2006-017-ORG, Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), ERIM is the joint research institute of the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the Erasmus School of Economics (ESE) at Erasmus Uni.
  5. Congregado, Emilio & Golpe, Antonio A. & Parker, Simon C., 2009. "The Dynamics of Entrepreneurship: Hysteresis, Business Cycles and Government Policy," IZA Discussion Papers 4093, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  6. Taylor, Mark P., 2011. "Self-employment flows and persistence: a European comparative analysis," ISER Working Paper Series 2011-26, Institute for Social and Economic Research.
  7. Arulampalam, Wiji & Stewart, Mark B., 2008. "Simplified Implementation of the Heckman Estimator of the Dynamic Probit Model and a Comparison with Alternative Estimators," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 884, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
  8. Audretsch, David B & Meijaard, Joris & Stam, Erik, 2005. "Renascent Men or Entrepreneurship as a One-Night Stand: Entrepreneurial Intentions Subsequent to Firm Exit," CEPR Discussion Papers 5342, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  9. Orla May & Merxe Tudela, 2005. "When is mortgage indebtedness a financial burden to British households? A dynamic probit approach," Bank of England working papers 277, Bank of England.
  10. Andrew Henley, 2005. "Job Creation by the Self-employed: The Roles of Entrepreneurial and Financial Capital," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 25(2), pages 175-196, 09.
  11. Millán, José María & Congregado, Emilio & Román, Concepción, 2014. "Persistence in entrepreneurship and its implications for the European entrepreneurial promotion policy," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 83-106.
  12. Bigsten, Arne & Mengistae, Taye & Shimeles, Abebe, 2007. "Mobility and earnings in Ethiopia's urban labor markets, 1994-2004," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4168, The World Bank.
  13. repec:dgr:uvatin:2003047 is not listed on IDEAS
  14. Matteo Bugamelli & Luigi Infante, 2003. "Sunk Costs of Exports," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 469, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
  15. Heinrichs, Simon & Walter, Sascha, 2013. "Who Becomes an Entrepreneur? A 30-Years-Review of Individual-Level Research and an Agenda for Future Research," EconStor Preprints 68590, ZBW - German National Library of Economics.
  16. Dirk Dohse & Sascha Walter, 2012. "Knowledge context and entrepreneurial intentions among students," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 39(4), pages 877-895, November.

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