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The Impact of the Agencies on Conventional Fixed-Rate Mortgage Yields


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  • Hendershott, Patric H
  • Shilling, James D


Between the early 1980s and 1986, the share of new conforming (under $153,000 in 1986) conventional fixed-rate mortgages (FRMs) that went into Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac mortgage pools increased from under 5 percent to over 50 percent. The impact of these agencies moving from negligible participants to dominant players in this market is investigated in this study by an analysis of yields on 4,900 loans closed in California during May-June 1978 and 1,800 closed in 'May-June 1986. Our analysis indicates that the loan rate depends on the loan-to-value ratio, the loan size, and, in 1986, whether the loan is far above, just above, or below the conforming loan limit. Rates on loans far above the conforming loan limit exceed those on otherwise comparable loans below the limit by 30 basis points and those on loans destined to exceed the limit within a year by 15 basis points. That is, the expanded agency securitization of conforming FRMs has significantly lowered the rates on both conforming loans and loans somewhat above the conforming limit (27 percent of nonconforming loans in 1986) relative to what they would otherwise have been. The effects of a 30 basis point lower FRM rate are many: households are more likely to choose FRMs than ARMs, to decide to own rather than rent, and to own larger houses. Moreover, traditional mortgage portfolio lenders will have fewer ARMs to purchase and will earn lower returns on FRM investments. A few sample calculations are provided to illustrate the possible magnitudes of these effects

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Springer in its journal Journal of Real Estate Finance & Economics.

Volume (Year): 2 (1989)
Issue (Month): 2 (June)
Pages: 101-15

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Handle: RePEc:kap:jrefec:v:2:y:1989:i:2:p:101-15

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Cited by:
  1. Ambrose, Brent W. & Buttimer, Richard Jr., 2005. "GSE impact on rural mortgage markets," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 417-443, July.
  2. W. Scott Frame & Lawrence J. White, 2004. "Emerging competition and risk-taking incentives at Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac," Working Paper 2004-4, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
  3. Robert DeYoung & William C. Hunter & Gregory F. Udell, 2003. "The past, present, and probable future for community banks," Working Paper Series WP-03-14, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  4. Nothaft, Frank E. & Perry, Vanessa G., 2002. "Do mortgage rates vary by neighborhood? Implications for loan pricing and redlining," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(3), pages 244-265, September.
  5. Michael Davies & Jacob Gyntelberg & Eric Chan, 2007. "Housing finance agencies in Asia," BIS Working Papers 241, Bank for International Settlements.
  6. John M. Quigley, 2006. "Federal credit and insurance programs: housing," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Jul, pages 281-310.
  7. Shane M. Sherlund, 2008. "The jumbo-conforming spread: a semiparametric approach," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2008-01, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  8. Xudong An & Yongheng Deng & Stuart Gabriel, 2009. "Value Creation through Securitization: Evidence from the CMBS Market," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 38(3), pages 302-326, April.
  9. Andreas Lehnert & Wayne Passmore & Shane Sherlund, 2008. "GSEs, Mortgage Rates, and Secondary Market Activities," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 36(3), pages 343-363, April.
  10. Allen Huang & Benjamin Liu, 2009. "The Goods and Services Tax (GST) and Non-Bank Lender Mortgage Costs: Empirical Evidence," Discussion Papers in Finance finance:200915, Griffith University, Department of Accounting, Finance and Economics.
  11. Wayne Passmore & Roger Sparks, 1997. "The effect of automated underwriting on the profitability of mortgage securitization," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 1997-19, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  12. Allen Huang & Benjamin Liu, 2009. "The Goods and Services Tax (GST) and Bank Mortgage Costs: Empirical Evidence," Discussion Papers in Finance finance:200914, Griffith University, Department of Accounting, Finance and Economics.
  13. Kerry D. Vandell, 1996. "Improving Secondary Markets in Rural America," Wisconsin-Madison CULER working papers 96-14, University of Wisconsin Center for Urban Land Economic Research.
  14. Edward Kane, 1999. "Housing Finance GSEs: Who Gets the Subsidy?," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer, vol. 15(3), pages 197-209, May.
  15. Xudong An & Raphael Bostic, 2008. "GSE Activity, FHA Feedback, and Implications for the Efficacy of the Affordable Housing Goals," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 36(2), pages 207-231, February.
  16. Liu, Benjamin & Skully, Michael, 2005. "The determinants of mortgage yield spread differentials: Securitization," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 15(4-5), pages 314-333, October.


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