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Gender Wage Gap: Evidence from the Hellenic Maritime Sector 1995-2002


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  • Stavros Arvanitis
  • Theodoros Stamatopoulos
  • Eleftherios Thalassinos


Problem Statement: Gender wage gap has already been researched in the Hellenic (Greek) economy or within its public and private aggregate sectors, but, this was the first study ever done, especially for the maritime sector. Traditionally in Hellas, maritime industry income is the biggest one after tourism, while both industries covered approximately 30% of GDP or financed more than 35% of the trade balance deficit, during the last decade. We also investigated the correlation and dependence of wages (total, males, females) on attributes of the human capital theory, such as age, educational level and work experience. Approach: The data for the characteristics in question of the Hellenic maritime companies have been drawn from the European Structure of Earnings Surveys of 1995 and 2002 (Eurostat and National Statistical Service of Hellas). The statistical analysis comprised two steps; first, using summary statistics we described the relevant frequency distributions; second, the implemented non-parametric test-statistics (Mann-Whitney’s, Spearman’s rank correlation and ?2-test of independence), answered the aforementioned questions, like, “is there any difference in the two populations?, e.g. male-hourly wage rate (HWR) against female-HWR, which is equivalent to “is there any gender pay gap?” or “what is the direction and the degree of linear relationship between, for instance, total HWR and the level of education?” or “are they independent of each other, e.g. males HWR and work experience?”. Results: The male-female wage distributions were not identical in 1995, so the discrimination was present, though, we did not find evidence of this gap in 2002. Hourly wage rate proved to be independent of educational level, while, dependent on work experience and age and for both latter characteristics, much more for females than for males. Conclusions/recommendations: The last results may explain the elimination of the gender pay gap at the end of the investigation period. Further research is needed so as to determine causal relationships.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by European Research Studies Journal in its journal European Research Studies Journal.

Volume (Year): XIV (2011)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
Pages: 93-104

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Handle: RePEc:ers:journl:v:xiv:y:2011:i:1:p:93-104

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Keywords: Gender Pay Gap; Male-Female Wages; Age; Educational Level; Work Experience; Inferential Non-parametric Statistics;

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  1. Mitrakos, T. & Tsakloglou, P., 1997. "An Anatomy of Inequality: Greece 1988," DEOS Working Papers 97-07, Athens University of Economics and Business.
  2. Miller, Paul W, 1987. "The Wage Effect of the Occupational Segregation of Women in Britain," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 97(388), pages 885-96, December.
  3. Greenhalgh, Christine A, 1980. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Great Britain: Is Marriage an Equal Opportunity?," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 90(363), pages 751-75, December.
  4. Oaxaca, Ronald, 1973. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 14(3), pages 693-709, October.
  5. Dolton, Peter J & Kidd, Michael P, 1994. "Occupational Access and Wage Discrimination," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 56(4), pages 457-74, November.
  6. David Neumark, 1987. "Employers' discriminatory behavior and the estimation of wage discrimination," Special Studies Papers 227, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  7. Gunderson, Morley, 1989. "Male-Female Wage Differentials and Policy Responses," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 27(1), pages 46-72, March.
  8. Jacob Mincer & Haim Ofek, 1982. "Interrupted Work Careers: Depreciation and Restoration of Human Capital," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 17(1), pages 3-24.
  9. Dolton, P J & Makepeace, G H, 1986. "Sample Selection and Male-Female Earnings Differentials in the Graduate Labour Market," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 38(2), pages 317-41, July.
  10. Blau, Francine D & Ferber, Marianne A, 1987. "Discrimination: Empirical Evidence from the United States," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 77(2), pages 316-20, May.
  11. Moon-Kak Kim & Solomon W. Polachek, 1994. "Panel Estimates of Male-Female Earnings Functions," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 29(2), pages 406-428.
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