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Effet des syndicats sur les inégalités entre les femmes et les hommes : une revue de la littérature

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  • Pascale Petit

    ()
    (EUREQua)

Abstract

In this paper, we survey unions’ effect on wage and employment inequalities between male and female workers. Unions seem to have a low effect on the inequalities between genders. First, the gender wage gap in the union sector is lower than the gender wage gap in the non-union sector because the gap between male and female productive characteristics is lower in the union sector. Second, wage discrimination persists in the union sector despite union's wage policy decreasing wage discrimination against women (the wage discrimination is lower in the union sector than in the non-union sector). Union's wage policy seems to have no macroeconomic effect on the female relative employment. However, at the microeconomic level, unions have an impact on job distribution between genders. Sap (1993) suggests that wage discrimination against women persists in the union sector because women have a lower bargaining power than men within unions. She also suggests that female bargaining power depends on women's share of union leadership. So, we suggest imposing female quota to union leadership.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Université Panthéon-Sorbonne (Paris 1) in its series Cahiers de la Maison des Sciences Economiques with number v04076.

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Length: 23 pages
Date of creation: Jun 2004
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:mse:wpsorb:v04076

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Keywords: Unions; wage discrimination; job discrimination.;

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References

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  1. Joseph G. Altonji & Rebecca M. Blank, . "Race and Gender in the Labor Market," IPR working papers 98-18, Institute for Policy Resarch at Northwestern University.
  2. Booth, Alison L, 1985. "The Free Rider Problem and a Social Custom Model of Trade Union Membership," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 100(1), pages 253-61, February.
  3. Bertola, Giuseppe & Blau, Francine D & Kahn, Lawrence, 2002. "Labour Market Institutions and Demographic Employment Patterns," CEPR Discussion Papers 3448, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  4. Miller, Paul W, 1987. "The Wage Effect of the Occupational Segregation of Women in Britain," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 97(388), pages 885-96, December.
  5. Denise J. Doiron & W. Craig Riddell, 1994. "The Impact of Unionization on Male-Female Earnings Differences in Canada," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 29(2), pages 504-534.
  6. Dolton, Peter J & Kidd, Michael P, 1994. "Occupational Access and Wage Discrimination," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 56(4), pages 457-74, November.
  7. Judith K. Hellerstein & David Neumark & Kenneth R. Troske, 1996. "Wages, Productivity, and Worker Characteristics: Evidence from Plant-Level Production Functions and Wage Equations," NBER Working Papers 5626, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. N C OLeary & P D Murphy & D H Blackaby, 2003. "The Effect of Unionisation on Wages in Great Britain: Estimates from the Labour Force Survey," Economic Issues Journal Articles, Economic Issues, vol. 8(1), pages 33-46, March.
  9. Main, Brian G M & Reilly, Barry, 1992. "Women and the Union Wage Gap," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 102(410), pages 49-66, January.
  10. Moon-Kak Kim & Solomon W. Polachek, 1994. "Panel Estimates of Male-Female Earnings Functions," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 29(2), pages 406-428.
  11. Booth, Alison, 1986. "Estimating the Probability of Trade Union Membership: A Study of Men and Women in Britain," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 53(29), pages 41-61, February.
  12. Coate, S. & Loury, G.C., 1992. "Will Affirmative Action Policies Eliminate Negative Stereotypes?," Papers 3, Boston University - Department of Economics.
  13. Emmanuel DUGUET & Pascale PETIT, 2005. "Hiring discrimination in the French financial sector: an econometric analysis on field experiment data," Annales d'Economie et de Statistique, ENSAE, issue 78, pages 79-102.
  14. Dale Melcher & Jennifer L. Eichstedt & Shelley Eriksen & Dan Clawson, 1992. "Women's participation in local union leadership: The Massachusetts experience," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 45(2), pages 267-280, January.
  15. David Card & Thomas Lemieux & W. Craig Riddell, 2003. "Unionization and Wage Inequality: A Comparative Study of the U.S, the U.K., and Canada," NBER Working Papers 9473, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  16. Oaxaca, Ronald, 1973. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 14(3), pages 693-709, October.
  17. Pascale Petit, 2004. "Discrimination à l'embauche. Une étude d'audit par couples dans le secteur financier," Revue économique, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 55(3), pages 611-621.
  18. Sap, Jolande, 1993. "Bargaining power and wages : A game-theoretic model of gender differences in union wage bargaining," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 1(1), pages 25-48, June.
  19. Xin Meng & Dominique Meurs, 2004. "The gender earnings gap: effects of institutions and firms--a comparative study of French and Australian private firms," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 56(2), pages 189-208, April.
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Cited by:
  1. Marie Leclair & Pascale Petit, 2004. "Présence syndicale dans les établissements : quel effet sur les inégalités salariales entre les hommes et les femmes ?," Cahiers de la Maison des Sciences Economiques v04084, Université Panthéon-Sorbonne (Paris 1).
  2. Marie Leclair & Pascale Petit, 2004. "Présence syndicale dans les établissements : quel effet sur les salaires masculins et féminins ?," Économie et Statistique, Programme National Persée, vol. 371(1), pages 23-47.

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