Effective incomplete contracts and milestones in market-distant R&D collaboration
AbstractR&D outsourcing is often conducted during the early, market-distant stages of the innovation process. However, the main obstacle to this potentially efficient interfirm specialization is the high danger of moral hazard. Most organizational mechanisms fail to control that type of opportunism because of information asymmetries, even ex post. In the theory of incomplete contracts, this problem is mitigated by assigning the control rights to the supplier. To date, empirical studies have mainly investigated the interfirm distribution of the control rights. However, we do not know yet which concrete control right is crucial with regard to supplier opportunism, which is the decisive dependent variable. Our study addresses this research gap. For the first time, we extend the empirical focus from biotechnology and pharmaceutical firm alliances to a cross-industry sample of 113 collaboration cases. The results show the effectiveness of contracts that ex ante assign patent ownership rights to the supplier. The findings are also relevant for management practice because the majority of practitioners do not use this contract type yet, although there is no sign of an effective alternative.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Elsevier in its journal Research Policy.
Volume (Year): 41 (2012)
Issue (Month): 2 ()
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/respol
R&D collaboration; Moral hazard; Incomplete contracts; Incentives; Patent ownership; Milestone-dependent payments;
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Josh Lerner & Ulrike Malmendier, 2005.
"Contractibility and the Design of Research Agreements,"
NBER Working Papers
11292, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Josh Lerner & Ulrike Malmendier, 2010. "Contractibility and the Design of Research Agreements," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 100(1), pages 214-46, March.
- Williamson, Oliver E, 1983. "Credible Commitments: Using Hostages to Support Exchange," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 73(4), pages 519-40, September.
- Grossman, Sanford J & Hart, Oliver, 1985.
"The Cost and Benefits of Ownership: A Theory of Vertical and Lateral Integration,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
70, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Grossman, Sanford J & Hart, Oliver D, 1986. "The Costs and Benefits of Ownership: A Theory of Vertical and Lateral Integration," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(4), pages 691-719, August.
- Grossman, Sanford J. & Hart, Oliver D., 1986. "The Costs and Benefits of Ownership: A Theory of Vertical and Lateral Integration," Scholarly Articles 3450060, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Oliver Hart & Sanford Grossman, 1985. "The Costs and Benefits of Ownership: A Theory of Vertical and Lateral Integration," Working papers 372, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
- Hart, Oliver D & Moore, John, 1988.
"Incomplete Contracts and Renegotiation,"
Econometric Society, vol. 56(4), pages 755-85, July.
- Oliver Hart & John Moore, 1985. "Incomplete Contracts and Renegotiation," Working papers 367, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
- Hardman Moore, John & Hart, Oliver, 1985. "Incomplete Contracts and Renegotiation," CEPR Discussion Papers 60, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- W. Bentley MacLeod & James Malcomson, 1997.
"Motivation and Markets,"
Boston College Working Papers in Economics
339., Boston College Department of Economics.
- MacLeod, W.B. & Malcomson, J.M., 1997. "Motivation and markets," Discussion Paper Series In Economics And Econometrics 9720, Economics Division, School of Social Sciences, University of Southampton.
- Josh Lerner & Alexander Tsai, 2000.
"Do Equity Financing Cycles Matter? Evidence from Biotechnology Alliances,"
NBER Working Papers
7464, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Lerner, Josh & Shane, Hilary & Tsai, Alexander, 2003. "Do equity financing cycles matter? evidence from biotechnology alliances," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 67(3), pages 411-446, March.
- Pisano, Gary P, 1989. "Using Equity Participation to Support Exchange: Evidence from the Biotechnology Industry," Journal of Law, Economics and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 5(1), pages 109-26, Spring.
- Spence, A Michael, 1973. "Job Market Signaling," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 87(3), pages 355-74, August.
- James Brown & Stephan Grzeskowiak & Chekitan Dev, 2009. "Using influence strategies to reduce marketing channel opportunism: The moderating effect of relational norms," Marketing Letters, Springer, vol. 20(2), pages 139-154, June.
- Aghion, Philippe & Tirole, Jean, 1994.
"On the Management of Innovation,"
IDEI Working Papers
36, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse.
- Telser, L G, 1980. "A Theory of Self-enforcing Agreements," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 53(1), pages 27-44, January.
- Helm, Roland & Kloyer, Martin, 2004.
"Controlling contractual exchange risks in R&D interfirm cooperation: an empirical study,"
Elsevier, vol. 33(8), pages 1103-1122, October.
- Roland Helm & Martin Kloyer, 2003. "Controlling Contractual Exchange Risks in R&D-Interfirm-Cooperation: An Empirical Study," Jenaer Schriften zur Wirtschaftswissenschaft 17/2003, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Fakultät.
- Licht, Georg & Stahl, Harald, 1997. "Ergebnisse der Innovationserhebung 1996," ZEW Dokumentationen 97-07, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
- William G. Ouchi, 1979. "A Conceptual Framework for the Design of Organizational Control Mechanisms," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 25(9), pages 833-848, September.
- Higgins, Matthew J., 2007. "The allocation of control rights in pharmaceutical alliances," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 58-75, March.
- Arora, Ashish & Gambardella, Alfonso, 1994. "Evaluating technological information and utilizing it : Scientific knowledge, technological capability, and external linkages in biotechnology," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 91-114, June.
- Bessy, Christian & Brousseau, Eric, 1998. "Technology licensing contracts features and diversity1," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 451-489, December.
- Klein, Benjamin & Crawford, Robert G & Alchian, Armen A, 1978. "Vertical Integration, Appropriable Rents, and the Competitive Contracting Process," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 21(2), pages 297-326, October.
- Shapiro, Carl, 1983. "Premiums for High Quality Products as Returns to Reputations," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 98(4), pages 659-79, November.
- Kronman, Anthony T, 1985. "Contract Law and the State of Nature," Journal of Law, Economics and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 1(1), pages 5-32, Spring.
- Marco Ceccagnoli & Stuart J.H. Graham & Matthew J. Higgins & Jeongsik Lee, 2010. "Productivity and the role of complementary assets in firms' demand for technology innovations," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 19(3), pages 839-869, June.
- Patrick Bajari & Ali Horta�su, 2004. "Economic Insights from Internet Auctions," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 42(2), pages 457-486, June.
- George Baker & Robert Gibbons & Kevin J. Murphy, 2002. "Relational Contracts And The Theory Of The Firm," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 117(1), pages 39-84, February.
- Nelson, Richard R. & Winter, Sidney G., 1993.
"In search of useful theory of innovation,"
Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 108-108, April.
- Gans, Joshua S. & Stern, Scott, 2003. "The product market and the market for "ideas": commercialization strategies for technology entrepreneurs," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 333-350, February.
- Lerner, Josh & Merges, Robert P, 1998. "The Control of Technology Alliances: An Empirical Analysis of the Biotechnology Industry," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 46(2), pages 125-56, June.
- Aghion, Philippe & Tirole, Jean, 1994.
"The Management of Innovation,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
MIT Press, vol. 109(4), pages 1185-1209, November.
- Aghion, P. & Tirole, J., 1994. "The management of innovation," Open Access publications from University College London http://discovery.ucl.ac.u, University College London.
- Kathleen M. Eisenhardt, 1985. "Control: Organizational and Economic Approaches," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 31(2), pages 134-149, February.
- Baker, George P, 1992. "Incentive Contracts and Performance Measurement," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 100(3), pages 598-614, June.
- Ashish Arora & Alfonso Gambardella, 2010. "Ideas for rent: an overview of markets for technology," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 19(3), pages 775-803, June.
- Jean Tirole, 1999. "Incomplete Contracts: Where Do We Stand?," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 67(4), pages 741-782, July.
- Klein, Benjamin & Leffler, Keith B, 1981. "The Role of Market Forces in Assuring Contractual Performance," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 89(4), pages 615-41, August.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Wendy Shamier).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.