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Tourism, poaching and wildlife conservation: what can integrated conservation and development projects accomplish?

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  • Johannesen, Anne Borge
  • Skonhoft, Anders

Abstract

Integrated Conservation and Development Projects (ICDPs) have frequently been established in Africa to improve wildlife conservation and the welfare of local communities. However, their effectiveness so far has been hampered by conflicts and illegal harvesting activities. Within a Gordon-Schäfer-type model, this paper focuses on the strategic interaction between the manager of a protected area and a group of local people living near the park. The park manager benefits from wildlife through non-consumptive tourism and safari hunting. The local people benefit through hunting, although this is illegal according to existing laws, but they also bear costs as wildlife causes agricultural damage. Depending on the economic and ecological environment, we show that ICDPs relying on money transfers to the local people derived from the park manager’s activities may or may not promote wildlife conservation. In addition, we demonstrate that the effects on the welfare of the local people are ambiguous.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Resource and Energy Economics.

Volume (Year): 27 (2005)
Issue (Month): 3 (October)
Pages: 208-226

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Handle: RePEc:eee:resene:v:27:y:2005:i:3:p:208-226

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Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/505569

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References

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  1. Brandon, Katrina Eadie & Wells, Michael, 1992. "Planning for people and parks: Design dilemmas," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 557-570, April.
  2. Zivin, Joshua & Hueth, Brent M. & Zilberman, David, 2000. "Managing a Multiple-Use Resource: The Case of Feral Pig Management in California Rangeland," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 39(2), pages 189-204, March.
  3. Christopher B. Barrett & Peter Arcese, 1998. "Wildlife Harvest in Integrated Conservation and Development Projects: Linking Harvest to Household Demand, Agricultural Production, and Environmental Shocks in the Serengeti," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 74(4), pages 449-465.
  4. Barrett, Christopher B. & Arcese, Peter, 1995. "Are Integrated Conservation-Development Projects (ICDPs) Sustainable? On the conservation of large mammals in sub-Saharan Africa," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 23(7), pages 1073-1084, July.
  5. Skonhoft, Anders, 1998. "Resource utilization, property rights and welfare--Wildlife and the local people," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 67-80, July.
  6. Muller, Jeffrey & Albers, Heidi J., 2004. "Enforcement, payments, and development projects near protected areas: how the market setting determines what works where," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(2), pages 185-204, June.
  7. Songorwa, Alexander N., 1999. "Community-Based Wildlife Management (CWM) in Tanzania: Are the Communities Interested?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 27(12), pages 2061-2079, December.
  8. de Janvry, Alain & Fafchamps, Marcel & Sadoulet, Elisabeth, 1991. "Peasant Household Behaviour with Missing Markets: Some Paradoxes Explained," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 101(409), pages 1400-417, November.
  9. Gibson, Clark C. & Marks, Stuart A., 1995. "Transforming rural hunters into conservationists: An assessment of community-based wildlife management programs in Africa," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 23(6), pages 941-957, June.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Ralph Winkler, 2007. "Why do ICDPs fail? The relationship between subsistence farming, poaching and eco- tourism in wildlife and habitat conservation," CER-ETH Economics working paper series 07/76, CER-ETH - Center of Economic Research (CER-ETH) at ETH Zurich.
  2. Samson Mukanjari, Edwin Muchapondwa, Precious Zikhali and Birgit Bednar-Friedl, 2012. "Evaluating the Prospects of Benefit Sharing Schemes in Protecting Mountain Gorillas in Central Africa," Working Papers 321, Economic Research Southern Africa.
  3. Fischer, Carolyn & Muchapondwa, Edwin & Sterner, Thomas, 2009. "Bioeconomic Model of Community Incentives for Wildlife Management Before and After CAMPFIRE," Working Papers in Economics 410, University of Gothenburg, Department of Economics.
  4. Anders Skonhoft, 2006. "Economic modeling approaches for wildlife and species conservation," Working Paper Series 7006, Department of Economics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
  5. Albers, Heidi J. & Robinson, Elizabeth J.Z., 2011. "The Trees and the Bees: Using Enforcement and Income Projects to Protect Forests and Rural Livelihoods Through Spatial Joint Production," Agricultural and Resource Economics Review, Northeastern Agricultural and Resource Economics Association, vol. 40(3), December.
  6. Winkler, Ralph, 2011. "Why do ICDPs fail?: The relationship between agriculture, hunting and ecotourism in wildlife conservation," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 55-78, January.
  7. Sonja S. Teelucksingh & Paulo A.L.D. Nunes, 2010. "Biodiversity Valuation in Developing Countries: A Focus on Small Island Developing States (SIDS)," Working Papers 2010.111, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
  8. Damania, Richard & Scandizzo, Pasquale Lucio & Glauber, A.J, 2014. "Ecosystems -- burden or bounty ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6890, The World Bank.
  9. Carolyn Fischer & Edwin Muchapondwa & Thomas Sterner, 2011. "A Bio-Economic Model of Community Incentives for Wildlife Management Under CAMPFIRE," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 48(2), pages 303-319, February.
  10. Robinson, Elizabeth J.Z. & Albers, Heidi J. & Lokina, Razack & Ngeleza, Guyslain, 2012. "Insiders, Outsiders, and the Role of Local Enforcement in Forest Management: An Example from Tanzania," Discussion Papers dp-12-07-efd, Resources For the Future.

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