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Why do ICDPs fail?: The relationship between agriculture, hunting and ecotourism in wildlife conservation

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  • Winkler, Ralph

Abstract

We analyze why integrated conservation and development projects (ICDPs) fail to achieve their conservation goals. We develop a bio-economic model of open access habitat and wildlife exploitation, which is consistent with farming and hunting societies living in close proximity to forest reserves in developing countries. We show that the ICDP creates incentives to conserve habitat and wildlife, but socially optimal levels of conservation cannot be achieved, because of externalities among the local communities. We show how a social planner can achieve the socially optimal levels of habitat and wildlife by a more encompassing tax/subsidy regime.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Resource and Energy Economics.

Volume (Year): 33 (2011)
Issue (Month): 1 (January)
Pages: 55-78

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Handle: RePEc:eee:resene:v:33:y:2011:i:1:p:55-78

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Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/505569

Related research

Keywords: Bio-economic modelling Competing land-use Ecotourism Integrated conservation and development projects Poaching Wildlife and habitat conservation;

References

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  1. Bulte, E.H. & Horan, R.D., 2003. "Habitat conservation, wildlife extraction and agricultural expansion," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-112507, Tilburg University.
  2. Skonhoft, Anders, 1998. "Resource utilization, property rights and welfare--Wildlife and the local people," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 67-80, July.
  3. Anders Skonhoft & Jan Tore Solstad, 1998. "The Political Economy of Wildlife Exploitation," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 74(1), pages 16-31.
  4. Smith, Vernon L, 1975. "The Primitive Hunter Culture, Pleistocene Extinction, and the Rise of Agriculture," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 83(4), pages 727-55, August.
  5. Johannesen, Anne Borge & Skonhoft, Anders, 2005. "Tourism, poaching and wildlife conservation: what can integrated conservation and development projects accomplish?," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 208-226, October.
  6. Bulte, Erwin & Rondeau, Daniel, 2007. "Compensation for wildlife damages: Habitat conversion, species preservation and local welfare," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 54(3), pages 311-322, November.
  7. Johannesen, Anne Borge, 2007. "Protected areas, wildlife conservation, and local welfare," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 62(1), pages 126-135, April.
  8. Anne Johannesen & Anders Skonhoft, 2004. "Property Rights and Natural Resource Conservation. A Bio-Economic Model with Numerical Illustrations from the Serengeti-Mara Ecosystem," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 28(4), pages 469-488, August.
  9. Naidoo, Robin & Adamowicz, Wiktor L., 2005. "Biodiversity and nature-based tourism at forest reserves in Uganda," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 10(02), pages 159-178, May.
  10. Gibson, Clark C. & Marks, Stuart A., 1995. "Transforming rural hunters into conservationists: An assessment of community-based wildlife management programs in Africa," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 23(6), pages 941-957, June.
  11. Skonhoft, Anders & Solstad, Jan Tore, 1996. "Wildlife management, illegal hunting and conflicts. A bioeconomic analysis," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 1(02), pages 165-181, May.
  12. Johannesen, Anne Borge, 2006. "Designing integrated conservation and development projects (ICDPs): illegal hunting, wildlife conservation, and the welfare of the local people," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 11(02), pages 247-267, April.
  13. Schulz, Carl-Erik & Skonhoft, Anders, 1996. "Wildlife management, land-use and conflicts," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 1(03), pages 265-280, July.
  14. Daniel Rondeau & Erwin Bulte, 2007. "Wildlife Damage and Agriculture: A Dynamic Analysis of Compensation Schemes," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 89(2), pages 490-507.
  15. Clark, Colin W, 1973. "Profit Maximization and the Extinction of Animal Species," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(4), pages 950-61, July-Aug..
  16. Winkler, Ralph, 2006. "Valuation of ecosystem goods and services: Part 1: An integrated dynamic approach," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(1), pages 82-93, August.
  17. Barrett, Christopher B. & Arcese, Peter, 1995. "Are Integrated Conservation-Development Projects (ICDPs) Sustainable? On the conservation of large mammals in sub-Saharan Africa," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 23(7), pages 1073-1084, July.
  18. Christopher B. Barrett & Peter Arcese, 1998. "Wildlife Harvest in Integrated Conservation and Development Projects: Linking Harvest to Household Demand, Agricultural Production, and Environmental Shocks in the Serengeti," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 74(4), pages 449-465.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Esther Blanco & Javier Lozano, 2012. "Evolutionary success and failure of wildlife conservancy programs," Working Papers 2012-18, Faculty of Economics and Statistics, University of Innsbruck.
  2. Vallino, Elena & Aldahsev,Gani, 2013. "NGOs and participatory conservation in developing countries: why are there inefficiencies?," Department of Economics and Statistics Cognetti de Martiis. Working Papers 201318, University of Turin.
  3. Coria, Jessica & Calfucura, Enrique, 2012. "Ecotourism and the development of indigenous communities: The good, the bad, and the ugly," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(C), pages 47-55.
  4. Rico García-Amado, Luis & Ruiz Pérez, Manuel & Barrasa García, Sara, 2013. "Motivation for conservation: Assessing integrated conservation and development projects and payments for environmental services in La Sepultura Biosphere Reserve, Chiapas, Mexico," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 89(C), pages 92-100.

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