From Brown to busing
AbstractBrown v. Board of Education had little immediate effect on the dual system of education in the South; by the early 1970s, however, Southern schools were the most racially integrated in the country. This paper uses newly assembled and uniquely comprehensive data to document how different types of Southern school districts made this transition. Controlling for other factors, we find larger districts were more likely to be under court supervision both early and ever; over time the enrollment threshold for court supervision fell. Poorer districts--which stood to lose larger federal grants if they failed to desegregate--were particularly likely to desegregate between 1964 and 1968. Black enrollment share did not impede "token" desegregation, but was an important predictor of both resistance to intensive desegregation and being supervised by a court in later years. By the end of our sample, in 1976, districts in Alabama and Louisiana were still significantly less integrated than in other states. Within states, however, despite having begun the 1960s with higher levels of segregation and retained them for longer than other districts, districts with stronger historical preferences for segregation had desegregated nearly as much as other districts by 1976; this may be related to their higher rate of court supervision in later years.
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Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Urban Economics.
Volume (Year): 64 (2008)
Issue (Month): 2 (September)
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/622905
Other versions of this item:
- H00 - Public Economics - - General - - - General
- I20 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - General
- I28 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Government Policy
- J15 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Minorities, Races, and Immigrants; Non-labor Discrimination
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Orley Ashenfelter & William J. Collins & Albert Yoon, 2005.
"Evaluating the Role of Brown vs. Board of Education in School Equalization, Desegregation, and the Income of African Americans,"
NBER Working Papers
11394, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Orley Ashenfelter & William J. Collins & Albert Yoon, 2006. "Evaluating the Role of Brown v. Board of Education in School Equalization, Desegregation, and the Income of African Americans," American Law and Economics Review, Oxford University Press, vol. 8(2), pages 213-248.
- Orley Ashenfelter & William J. Collins & Albert Yoon, 2005. "Evaluating the Role of Brown vs. Board of Education in School Equalization, Desegregation, and the Income of African Americans," Vanderbilt University Department of Economics Working Papers 0515, Vanderbilt University Department of Economics.
- Jonathan Guryan, 2001.
"Desegregation and Black Dropout Rates,"
NBER Working Papers
8345, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- repec:pri:indrel:681 is not listed on IDEAS
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- Elizabeth U. Cascio & Ebonya L. Washington, 2012. "Valuing the Vote: The Redistribution of Voting Rights and State Funds Following the Voting Rights Act of 1965," NBER Working Papers 17776, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Rucker C. Johnson, 2011. "Long-run Impacts of School Desegregation & School Quality on Adult Attainments," NBER Working Papers 16664, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Cory Koedel & Julian R. Betts & Lorien A. Rice & Andrew C. Zau, 2009. "The Social Cost of Open Enrollment as a School Choice Policy," Working Papers 0906, Department of Economics, University of Missouri, revised 13 Apr 2010.
- David A. Weiner & Byron F. Lutz & Jens Ludwig, 2009. "The Effects of School Desegregation on Crime," NBER Working Papers 15380, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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