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From Brown to busing

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  • Cascio, Elizabeth
  • Gordon, Nora
  • Lewis, Ethan
  • Reber, Sarah

Abstract

Brown v. Board of Education had little immediate effect on the dual system of education in the South; by the early 1970s, however, Southern schools were the most racially integrated in the country. This paper uses newly assembled and uniquely comprehensive data to document how different types of Southern school districts made this transition. Controlling for other factors, we find larger districts were more likely to be under court supervision both early and ever; over time the enrollment threshold for court supervision fell. Poorer districts--which stood to lose larger federal grants if they failed to desegregate--were particularly likely to desegregate between 1964 and 1968. Black enrollment share did not impede "token" desegregation, but was an important predictor of both resistance to intensive desegregation and being supervised by a court in later years. By the end of our sample, in 1976, districts in Alabama and Louisiana were still significantly less integrated than in other states. Within states, however, despite having begun the 1960s with higher levels of segregation and retained them for longer than other districts, districts with stronger historical preferences for segregation had desegregated nearly as much as other districts by 1976; this may be related to their higher rate of court supervision in later years.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Urban Economics.

Volume (Year): 64 (2008)
Issue (Month): 2 (September)
Pages: 296-325

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Handle: RePEc:eee:juecon:v:64:y:2008:i:2:p:296-325

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Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/622905

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  1. Orley Ashenfelter & William J. Collins & Albert Yoon, 2005. "Evaluating the Role of Brown vs. Board of Education in School Equalization, Desegregation, and the Income of African Americans," Vanderbilt University Department of Economics Working Papers, Vanderbilt University Department of Economics 0515, Vanderbilt University Department of Economics.
  2. Jonathan Guryan, 2001. "Desegregation and Black Dropout Rates," NBER Working Papers 8345, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Michael Boozer & Alan Krueger & Shari Wolkon, 1992. "Race and School Quality Since Brown vs. Board of Education," Working Papers, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section. 681, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
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Cited by:
  1. Nathaniel Baum-Snow & Byron Lutz, 2008. "School desegregation, school choice and changes in residential location patterns by race," Finance and Economics Discussion Series, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.) 2008-57, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  2. Rucker C. Johnson, 2011. "Long-run Impacts of School Desegregation & School Quality on Adult Attainments," NBER Working Papers 16664, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Nora E. Gordon, 2013. "High School Graduation in the Context of Changing Elementary and Secondary Education Policy and Income Inequality: The Last Half Century," NBER Working Papers 19049, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. David A. Weiner & Byron F. Lutz & Jens Ludwig, 2009. "The Effects of School Desegregation on Crime," NBER Working Papers 15380, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Cory Koedel & Julian R. Betts & Lorien A. Rice & Andrew C. Zau, 2009. "The Social Cost of Open Enrollment as a School Choice Policy," Working Papers, Department of Economics, University of Missouri 0906, Department of Economics, University of Missouri, revised 13 Apr 2010.
  6. Elizabeth U. Cascio & Ebonya L. Washington, 2012. "Valuing the Vote: The Redistribution of Voting Rights and State Funds Following the Voting Rights Act of 1965," NBER Working Papers 17776, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

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