Earnings management and initial public offerings: The case of the depository industry
AbstractIn a typical IPO, insiders are "net sellers" of IPO shares; however, in a demutualizing thrift, insiders are "net buyers" of IPO shares. Using a sample of mutual depository IPOs, we find evidence consistent with earnings management prior to the conversion of mutual thrifts. We find on average that mutuals report lower ROA and increased loan loss provisions and loan loss reserves in the period prior to the demutualization. Using a two-stage approach, we also find that the level of discretionary loan loss provisions and discretionary reserves are positively related to both the level of insider participation in the IPO and the first-day returns to investors. Our results are consistent with management of mutual thrifts benefiting at the conversion from reduced pre-IPO earnings and book equity resulting from earnings management.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Banking & Finance.
Volume (Year): 33 (2009)
Issue (Month): 12 (December)
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jbf
Earnings management Thrift Mutual Demutualization Initial public offering Loan loss provisions Reserves;
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Brown, Christine & Davis, Kevin, 2009. "Capital management in mutual financial institutions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 443-455, March.
- William Wilhelm & Alexander Ljungqvist, 2002.
"IPO Pricing in the Dot-com Bubble,"
Economics Series Working Papers
2002-FE-07, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
- William J. Wilhelm & Alexander Ljungqvist, 2002. "IPO Pricing in the Dot-com Bubble," OFRC Working Papers Series 2002fe07, Oxford Financial Research Centre.
- Ljungqvist, Alexander P & Wilhelm Jr, William J, 2002. "IPO Pricing in the dot-com Bubble," CEPR Discussion Papers 3314, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Hasan, Iftekhar & Wall , Larry D., 2003.
"Determinants of the loan loss allowance: some cross-country comparisons,"
Research Discussion Papers
33/2003, Bank of Finland.
- Iftekhar Hasan & Larry D. Wall, 2004. "Determinants of the Loan Loss Allowance: Some Cross-Country Comparisons," The Financial Review, Eastern Finance Association, vol. 39(1), pages 129-152, 02.
- Iftekhar Hasan & Larry D. Wall, 2004. "Determinants of the loan loss allowance: some cross-country comparisons," Finance 0404018, EconWPA.
- Beaver, William H. & Engel, Ellen E., 1996. "Discretionary behavior with respect to allowances for loan losses and the behavior of security prices," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1-3), pages 177-206, October.
- Moyer, Susan E., 1990. "Capital adequacy ratio regulations and accounting choices in commercial banks," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 123-154, July.
- Siew Hong Teoh & Ivo Welch & T.J. Wong, 1998. "Earnings Management and the Long-Run Market Performance of Initial Public Offerings," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(6), pages 1935-1974, December.
- Scholes, Myron S & Wilson, G Peter & Wolfson, Mark A, 1990. "Tax Planning, Regulatory Capital Planning, and Financial Reporting Strategy for Commercial Banks," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 3(4), pages 625-50.
- Haluk Unal, 1997. "Regulatory Misconceptions in Pricing Thrift Conversions: A Closer Look at the Appraisal Process," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer, vol. 11(3), pages 239-254, June.
- Alavi, Arash & Pham, Peter Kien & Pham, Toan My, 2008. "Pre-IPO ownership structure and its impact on the IPO process," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(11), pages 2361-2375, November.
- Kenneth A. Carow & Steven R. Cox & Dianne M. Roden, 2007. "The Role of Insider Influence in Mutual-to-Stock Conversions," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 39(6), pages 1285-1304, 09.
- David Mayers & Clifford W. Smith, 2004. "Incentives for Managing Accounting Information: Property-Liability Insurer Stock-Charter Conversions," Journal of Risk & Insurance, The American Risk and Insurance Association, vol. 71(2), pages 213-251.
- Masulis, Ronald W., 1987. "Changes in ownership structure : Conversions of mutual savings and loans to stock charter," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 29-59, March.
- Ahmed, Anwer S. & Takeda, Carolyn & Thomas, Shawn, 1999. "Bank loan loss provisions: a reexamination of capital management, earnings management and signaling effects," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 1-25, November.
- Carow, Kenneth A. & Cox, Steven R. & Roden, Dianne M., 2009. "Demutualization: Determinants and consequences of the mutual holding company choice," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(8), pages 1454-1463, August.
- Cornett, Marcia Millon & McNutt, Jamie John & Tehranian, Hassan, 2009. "Corporate governance and earnings management at large U.S. bank holding companies," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(4), pages 412-430, September.
- Guojin Gong & Henock Louis & Amy X. Sun, 2008. "Earnings Management and Firm Performance Following Open-Market Repurchases," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 63(2), pages 947-986, 04.
- Perry, Susan E. & Williams, Thomas H., 1994. "Earnings management preceding management buyout offers," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 157-179, September.
- Teoh, Siew Hong & Welch, Ivo & Wong, T. J., 1998. "Earnings management and the underperformance of seasoned equity offerings," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(1), pages 63-99, October.
- Fonseca, Ana Rosa & González, Francisco, 2008. "Cross-country determinants of bank income smoothing by managing loan-loss provisions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 217-228, February.
- Erickson, Merle & Wang, Shiing-wu, 1999. "Earnings management by acquiring firms in stock for stock mergers," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 149-176, April.
- Coles, Jeffrey L. & Hertzel, Michael & Kalpathy, Swaminathan, 2006. "Earnings management around employee stock option reissues," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(1-2), pages 173-200, April.
- Lowry, Michelle & Murphy, Kevin J., 2007. "Executive stock options and IPO underpricing," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 85(1), pages 39-65, July.
- Friesen, Geoffrey C. & Swift, Christopher, 2009. "Overreaction in the thrift IPO aftermarket," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(7), pages 1285-1298, July.
- Bornemann, Sven & Kick, Thomas & Memmel, Christoph & Pfingsten, Andreas, 2010.
"Are banks using hidden reserves to beat earnings benchmarks? Evidence from Germany,"
Discussion Paper Series 2: Banking and Financial Studies
2010,13, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
- Bornemann, Sven & Kick, Thomas & Memmel, Christoph & Pfingsten, Andreas, 2012. "Are banks using hidden reserves to beat earnings benchmarks? Evidence from Germany," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(8), pages 2403-2415.
- Eliana Balla & Morgan J. Rose, 2011. "Loan loss reserves, accounting constraints, and bank ownership structure," Working Paper 11-09, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond.
- Datta, Sudip & Iskandar-Datta, Mai & Singh, Vivek, 2013. "Product market power, industry structure, and corporate earnings management," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(8), pages 3273-3285.
- Jiang, Xiaoquan & Zaman, Mir A., 2010. "Aggregate insider trading: Contrarian beliefs or superior information?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(6), pages 1225-1236, June.
- Xie, Xiaoying, 2010. "Are publicly held firms less efficient? Evidence from the US property-liability insurance industry," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(7), pages 1549-1563, July.
- Kanagaretnam, Kiridaran & Lim, Chee Yeow & Lobo, Gerald J., 2010. "Auditor reputation and earnings management: International evidence from the banking industry," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(10), pages 2318-2327, October.
- Chen, An-Sing & Cheng, Lee-Young & Cheng, Kuang-Fu & Chih, Shu-Wei, 2010. "Earnings management, market discounts and the performance of private equity placements," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(8), pages 1922-1932, August.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.