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Earnings quality at initial public offerings

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  • Ball, Ray
  • Shivakumar, Lakshmanan
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Abstract

We show that, contrary to popular belief, initial public offering (IPO) firms report more conservatively. We attribute this to the higher quality reporting demanded of public firms by financial statement users and consequentially higher monitoring by auditors, boards, analysts, rating agencies, press, and litigants, and to greater regulatory scrutiny [Ball, R., Shivakumar, L., 2005. Earnings quality in UK private firms: comparative loss recognition timeliness. Journal of Accounting and Economics 39, 83-128]. We also question the evidence of Teoh et al. [1998b. Earnings management and the subsequent market performance of initial public offerings. Journal of Finance 53, 1935-1974] supporting the alternative hypothesis that managers opportunistically inflate earnings to influence IPO pricing. We conjecture that upward-biased estimates of "discretionary" accruals occur in a broad genre of studies on earnings management around similar large transactions and events.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Accounting and Economics.

Volume (Year): 45 (2008)
Issue (Month): 2-3 (August)
Pages: 324-349

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Handle: RePEc:eee:jaecon:v:45:y:2008:i:2-3:p:324-349

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References

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  1. Siew Hong Teoh & T. J. Wong, 2002. "Why New Issues and High-Accrual Firms Underperform: The Role of Analysts' Credulity," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 15(3), pages 869-900.
  2. DeAngelo, Harry & DeAngelo, Linda & Skinner, Douglas J., 1994. "Accounting choice in troubled companies," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(1-2), pages 113-143, January.
  3. Dechow, Patricia M., 1994. "Accounting earnings and cash flows as measures of firm performance : The role of accounting accruals," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 3-42, July.
  4. Bushman, Robert M. & Piotroski, Joseph D., 2006. "Financial reporting incentives for conservative accounting: The influence of legal and political institutions," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(1-2), pages 107-148, October.
  5. Perry, Susan E. & Williams, Thomas H., 1994. "Earnings management preceding management buyout offers," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 157-179, September.
  6. Ray Ball & Lakshmanan Shivakumar, 2006. "The Role of Accruals in Asymmetrically Timely Gain and Loss Recognition," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 44(2), pages 207-242, 05.
  7. Paul Hribar, 2002. "Errors in Estimating Accruals: Implications for Empirical Research," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(1), pages 105-134, 03.
  8. Ball, Ray & Shivakumar, Lakshmanan, 2005. "Earnings quality in UK private firms: comparative loss recognition timeliness," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 83-128, February.
  9. Guojin Gong & Henock Louis & Amy X. Sun, 2008. "Earnings Management and Firm Performance Following Open-Market Repurchases," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 63(2), pages 947-986, 04.
  10. Louis, Henock, 2004. "Earnings management and the market performance of acquiring firms," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(1), pages 121-148, October.
  11. Leuz, Christian & Nanda, Dhananjay & Wysocki, Peter D., 2003. "Earnings management and investor protection: an international comparison," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(3), pages 505-527, September.
  12. Robert M. Bushman & Joseph D. Piotroski & Abbie J. Smith, 2004. "What Determines Corporate Transparency?," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 42(2), pages 207-252, 05.
  13. DeFond, Mark L. & Jiambalvo, James, 1994. "Debt covenant violation and manipulation of accruals," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(1-2), pages 145-176, January.
  14. Leuz, Christian & Oberholzer-Gee, Felix, 2006. "Political relationships, global financing, and corporate transparency: Evidence from Indonesia," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 81(2), pages 411-439, August.
  15. Coles, Jeffrey L. & Hertzel, Michael & Kalpathy, Swaminathan, 2006. "Earnings management around employee stock option reissues," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(1-2), pages 173-200, April.
  16. Powell, Ronan G. & Stark, Andrew W., 2005. "Does operating performance increase post-takeover for UK takeovers? A comparison of performance measures and benchmarks," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 11(1-2), pages 293-317, March.
  17. Ball, Ray & Kothari, S. P. & Robin, Ashok, 2000. "The effect of international institutional factors on properties of accounting earnings," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 1-51, February.
  18. Erickson, Merle & Wang, Shiing-wu, 1999. "Earnings management by acquiring firms in stock for stock mergers," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 149-176, April.
  19. Kothari, S.P. & Leone, Andrew J. & Wasley, Charles E., 2005. "Performance matched discretionary accrual measures," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 163-197, February.
  20. DuCharme, Larry L. & Malatesta, Paul H. & Sefcik, Stephan E., 2004. "Earnings management, stock issues, and shareholder lawsuits," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 71(1), pages 27-49, January.
  21. Sweeney, Amy Patricia, 1994. "Debt-covenant violations and managers' accounting responses," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 281-308, May.
  22. Siew Hong Teoh & Ivo Welch & T.J. Wong, 1998. "Earnings Management and the Long-Run Market Performance of Initial Public Offerings," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(6), pages 1935-1974, December.
  23. Louis, Henock & Robinson, Dahlia, 2005. "Do managers credibly use accruals to signal private information? Evidence from the pricing of discretionary accruals around stock splits," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(2), pages 361-380, June.
  24. Rangan, Srinivasan, 1998. "Earnings management and the performance of seasoned equity offerings," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(1), pages 101-122, October.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Zhe Shen & Jerry Coakley & Norvald Instefjord, 2014. "Earnings management and IPO anomalies in China," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 42(1), pages 69-93, January.
  2. Lubos Pastor & Lucian Taylor & Pietro Veronesi, 2006. "Entrepreneurial Learning, the IPO Decision, and the Post-IPO Drop in Firm Profitability," NBER Working Papers 12792, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Ahmad-Zaluki, Nurwati A. & Campbell, Kevin & Goodacre, Alan, 2011. "Earnings management in Malaysian IPOs: The East Asian crisis, ownership control, and post-IPO performance," The International Journal of Accounting, Elsevier, vol. 46(2), pages 111-137, June.
  4. Chahine, Salim & Arthurs, Jonathan D. & Filatotchev, Igor & Hoskisson, Robert E., 2012. "The effects of venture capital syndicate diversity on earnings management and performance of IPOs in the US and UK: An institutional perspective," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 179-192.
  5. Emilia Peni & Sami Vähämaa, 2010. "Female executives and earnings management," Managerial Finance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 36(7), pages 629-645, July.
  6. Lo, Kin, 2008. "Earnings management and earnings quality," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 45(2-3), pages 350-357, August.
  7. repec:eme:mfipps:v:36:y:2010:i:3:p:485-507 is not listed on IDEAS
  8. Gerakos, Joseph & Lang, Mark & Maffett, Mark, 2013. "Post-listing performance and private sector regulation: The experience of London's Alternative Investment Market," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(2), pages 189-215.
  9. Dan Dacian Cuzdriorean, 2013. "Most Recent Findings In Earnings Management Area: Interesting Insights From Traditionally Top 5 Leading Accounting Journals," Annales Universitatis Apulensis Series Oeconomica, Faculty of Sciences, "1 Decembrie 1918" University, Alba Iulia, vol. 2(15), pages 5.
  10. Salma Ibrahim & Li Xu & Genese Rogers, 2011. "Real and accrual-based earnings management and its legal consequences: Evidence from seasoned equity offerings," Accounting Research Journal, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 24(1), pages 50-78, July.
  11. Gul, Ferdinand A. & Fung, Simon Yu Kit & Jaggi, Bikki, 2009. "Earnings quality: Some evidence on the role of auditor tenure and auditors' industry expertise," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(3), pages 265-287, June.
  12. Premti, Arjan & Madura, Jeff, 2013. "Motives and consequences of IPOs in cold periods," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 53(4), pages 486-496.
  13. Karel Hrazdil & Thomas Scott, 2013. "The role of industry classification in estimating discretionary accruals," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 40(1), pages 15-39, January.
  14. Armstrong, Christopher S. & Guay, Wayne R. & Weber, Joseph P., 2010. "The role of information and financial reporting in corporate governance and debt contracting," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(2-3), pages 179-234, December.
  15. Choi, Jong-Seo & Kwak, Young-Min & Choe, Chongwoo, 2012. "Earnings management surrounding CEO turnover: evidence from Korea," MPRA Paper 40629, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  16. Kousenidis, Dimitrios V. & Ladas, Anestis C. & Negakis, Christos I., 2013. "The effects of the European debt crisis on earnings quality," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 351-362.
  17. Mao, Y. & Renneboog, L.D.R., 2013. "Do Managers Manipulate Earnings Prior to Management Buyouts?," Discussion Paper 2013-055, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  18. Cohen, Daniel A. & Zarowin, Paul, 2010. "Accrual-based and real earnings management activities around seasoned equity offerings," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(1), pages 2-19, May.
  19. Ball, Ray & Jayaraman, Sudarshan & Shivakumar, Lakshmanan, 2012. "Audited financial reporting and voluntary disclosure as complements: A test of the Confirmation Hypothesis," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(1), pages 136-166.
  20. Mohamed Elbannan, 2011. "Accounting and stock market effects of international accounting standards adoption in an emerging economy," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 36(2), pages 207-245, February.

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