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Crossvergence and cultural tendencies: A longitudinal test of the Hong Kong, Taiwan and United States banking sectors


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  • Kelley, Lane
  • MacNab, Brent
  • Worthley, Reginald
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    Cultural attitudes in two, sometimes assumed similar, regions of Greater China (Hong Kong and Taiwan) were compared and examined within the context of an often assumed, dissimilar region (the United States) for the banking industry during 1985 and 2000. The potentially dynamic nature of national culture, as opposed to a more static approach that is often assumed in management research using a Hofstede framework, is examined. The evidence of relative sample convergence, particularly in relation to collectivism and uncertainty avoidance, along with select, individual region static positions for cultural dimensions provide support for the crossvergence theory [Ralston, D., Holt, D, Terpstra, R., Kai-Cheng, Y., 1997. The impact of national culture and economic ideology on managerial work values: a study of the U.S., Russia, Japan and China. Journal of International Business Studies 28, 177-207]. Pragmatically the research suggests organizational policies and practices should be updated for maximum effectiveness in relation to crossverging realities and that culture is not static. Academically the research cautions use of approaches that rely on dated rankings for cultural indicators as a basis for current examination since relative cultural positions among regions and nations are also not static.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of International Management.

    Volume (Year): 12 (2006)
    Issue (Month): 1 (March)
    Pages: 67-84

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:intman:v:12:y:2006:i:1:p:67-84

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    Keywords: Hong Kong Taiwan United States Banking Crossvergence Culture Hofstede;


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    1. David A Ralston & David H Holt & Robert H Terpstra & Yu Kai-Cheng, 1997. "The Impact of Natural Culture and Economic Ideology on Managerial Work Values: A Study of the United States, Russia, Japan, and China," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 28(1), pages 177-207, March.
    2. Mark Heuer & Jeffrey L Cummings & Winfred Hutabarat, 1999. "Cultural Stability or Change Among Managers in Indonesia?," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 30(3), pages 599-610, September.
    3. Lane Kelley & Arthur Whatley & Reginald Worthley, 1987. "Assessing the Effects of Culture on Managerial Attitudes: A Three-Culture Test," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 18(2), pages 17-31, June.
    4. David A Ralston & David J Gustafson & Fanny M Cheung & Robert H Terpstra, 1993. "Differences in Managerial Values: A Study of U.S., Hong Kong and PRC Managers," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 24(2), pages 249-275, June.
    5. David C Thomas & Kevin Au, 2002. "The Effect of Cultural Differences on Behavioral Responses to Low Job Satisfaction," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 33(2), pages 309-326, June.
    6. Sue-Chan, Christina & Ong, Mark, 2002. "Goal assignment and performance: Assessing the mediating roles of goal commitment and self-efficacy and the moderating role of power distance," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 89(2), pages 1140-1161, November.
    7. McGrath, Rita Gunther & MacMillan, Ian C. & Yang, Elena Ai-Yuan & Tsai, William, 1992. "Does culture endure, or is it malleable? Issues for entrepreneurial economic development," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 7(6), pages 441-458, November.
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    Cited by:
    1. Ralston, David A. & Egri, Carolyn P. & Casado, Tania & Fu, Pingping & Wangenheim, Florian, 2009. "The impact of life stage and societal culture on subordinate influence ethics: A study of Brazil, China, Germany, and the U.S," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 15(4), pages 374-386, December.
    2. Shimoni, Baruch, 2011. "The representation of cultures in international and cross cultural management: Hybridizations of management cultures in Thailand and Israel," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 30-41, March.
    3. David Ralston & Allison Pearson, 2010. "The Cross-Cultural Evolution of the Subordinate Influence Ethics Measure," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 96(1), pages 149-168, September.


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