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Culture as a consequence: A multi-level multivariate meta-analysis of the effects of individual and country characteristics on work-related cultural values

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  • Steel, Piers
  • Taras, Vasyl
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    Abstract

    Culture as a consequence is a neglected topic. Addressing this, we explore what factors are related to and potentially shape culture, what explains cultural variations within countries, and what the relationship is between cultural values at the individual and national levels. To answer these questions, we use a multi-level multivariate meta-analysis of 508 studies. The findings indicate that national and individual cultural values may be determined by the micro characteristics of age, gender, education, and socio-economic status as well as the macro characteristics of wealth and freedom. This provides a basis for explaining cultural change, both at the individual and national levels. Also, up to 90% of the variance in cultural values is found to reside within countries, stressing that national averages poorly represent specific individuals.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of International Management.

    Volume (Year): 16 (2010)
    Issue (Month): 3 (September)
    Pages: 211-233

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:intman:v:16:y:2010:i:3:p:211-233

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    Related research

    Keywords: Culture Explaining culture Cultural change Meta-analysis HLM;

    References

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    1. Geert Hofstede, 1994. "Management Scientists Are Human," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 40(1), pages 4-13, January.
    2. Y Paul Huo & Donna Randall, 1991. "Exploring subcultural differences in hofstede's value survey: The case of the Chinese," Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Springer, vol. 8(2), pages 159-173, October.
    3. Kevin Y Au, 1999. "Intra-cultural Variation: Evidence and Implications for International Business," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 30(4), pages 799-812, December.
    4. Mark Heuer & Jeffrey L Cummings & Winfred Hutabarat, 1999. "Cultural Stability or Change Among Managers in Indonesia?," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 30(3), pages 599-610, September.
    5. H Kevin Steensma & Louis Marino & K Mark Weaver, 2000. "Attitudes Toward Cooperative Strategies: A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Entrepreneurs," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 31(4), pages 591-609, December.
    6. Johnson, James P. & Lenartowicz, Tomasz, 1998. "Culture, freedom and economic growth: Do cultural values explain economic growth?," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 33(4), pages 332-356, January.
    7. David A Ralston & David H Holt & Robert H Terpstra & Yu Kai-Cheng, 1997. "The Impact of Natural Culture and Economic Ideology on Managerial Work Values: A Study of the United States, Russia, Japan, and China," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 28(1), pages 177-207, March.
    8. David A. Ralston & James Pounder & Carlos W.H. Lo & Yim-Yu Wong & Carolyn P. Egri & Joseph Stauffer, 2006. "Stability and Change in Managerial Work Values: A Longitudinal Study of China, Hong Kong, and the U.S," Management and Organization Review, International Association of Chinese Management Research, vol. 2(1), pages 67-94, March.
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    10. Kwok Leung & Rabi S Bhagat & Nancy R Buchan & Miriam Erez & Cristina B Gibson, 2005. "Culture and international business: recent advances and their implications for future research," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 36(4), pages 357-378, July.
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    Cited by:
    1. Gunkel, Marjaana & Schlägel, Christopher & Engle, Robert L., 2014. "Culture's Influence on Emotional Intelligence: An Empirical Study of Nine Countries," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 256-274.
    2. David Ralston & Carolyn Egri & Olivier Furrer & Min-Hsun Kuo & Yongjuan Li & Florian Wangenheim & Marina Dabic & Irina Naoumova & Katsuhiko Shimizu & María Garza Carranza & Ping Fu & Vojko Potocan & , 2014. "Societal-Level Versus Individual-Level Predictions of Ethical Behavior: A 48-Society Study of Collectivism and Individualism," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 122(2), pages 283-306, June.
    3. Egri, Carolyn P. & Khilji, Shaista E. & Ralston, David A. & Palmer, Ian & Girson, Ilya & Milton, Laurie & Richards, Malika & Ramburuth, Prem & Mockaitis, Audra, 2012. "Do Anglo countries still form a values cluster? Evidence of the complexity of value change," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 47(2), pages 267-276.
    4. Taras, Vas & Steel, Piers & Kirkman, Bradley L., 2012. "Improving national cultural indices using a longitudinal meta-analysis of Hofstede's dimensions," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 47(3), pages 329-341.
    5. Černe, Matej & Jaklič, Marko & Škerlavaj, Miha, 2013. "Decoupling management and technological innovations: Resolving the individualism–collectivism controversy," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 103-117.

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