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The impact of life stage and societal culture on subordinate influence ethics: A study of Brazil, China, Germany, and the U.S

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Author Info

  • Ralston, David A.
  • Egri, Carolyn P.
  • Casado, Tania
  • Fu, Pingping
  • Wangenheim, Florian
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    Abstract

    In this paper, we investigate the effects of societal values and life stage on subordinate influence ethics. Based on the evolving crossvergence theory of macro-level predictors of values evolution, we demonstrate the applicability of crossvergence theory in the micro-level context. Furthermore, our study provides the first empirical multi-level analysis of influence ethics utilizing a multiple-country sample. Thus, we illustrate how the breath of crossvergence can be expanded to provide a multi-level theoretical foundation of values and behavior evolution across cultures. Specifically, we integrate micro-level life stage theory and macro-level societal culture theory to concurrently assess the contributions of each theory in explaining subordinate influence ethics across the diverse societies of Brazil, China, Germany and the U.S. Consistent with previous research, we found significant societal differences in influence ethics. However, we also found that life stage theory played a significant role in understanding influence ethics. Thus, our findings expand the crossvergence perspective on societal change, indicating that key micro-level predictors (e.g., life stage) should be included in cross-cultural research.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of International Management.

    Volume (Year): 15 (2009)
    Issue (Month): 4 (December)
    Pages: 374-386

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:intman:v:15:y:2009:i:4:p:374-386

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    Related research

    Keywords: Ethics Influence Crossvergence Life stage Brazil China Germany U.S.;

    References

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    1. Ruth Alas, 2006. "Ethics in countries with different cultural dimensions," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 69(3), pages 237-247, December.
    2. David A Ralston & Nguyen Van Thang & Nancy K Napier, 1999. "A Comparative Study of the Work Values of North and South Vietnamese Managers," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 30(4), pages 655-672, December.
    3. Wolfgang Glatzer & Mathias Bös, 1998. "Subjective Attendants of Unification and Transformation in Germany," Social Indicators Research, Springer, vol. 43(1), pages 171-196, February.
    4. Ralston, David A. & Terpstra-Tong, Jane & Maignan, Isabelle & Napier, Nancy K. & Nguyen, Van Thang, 2006. "Vietnam: A cross-cultural comparison of upward influence ethics," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 85-105, March.
    5. David A Ralston, 2008. "The crossvergence perspective: reflections and projections," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 39(1), pages 27-40, January.
    6. Mellahi, Kamel & Guermat, Cherif, 2004. "Does age matter? An empirical examination of the effect of age on managerial values and practices in India," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 39(2), pages 199-215, May.
    7. Harald Uhlig, 2006. "Regional Labor Markets, Network Externalities and Migration: The Case of German Reunification," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 96(2), pages 383-387, May.
    8. David A Ralston & David J Gustafson & Fanny M Cheung & Robert H Terpstra, 1993. "Differences in Managerial Values: A Study of U.S., Hong Kong and PRC Managers," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 24(2), pages 249-275, June.
    9. David A Ralston & Carolyn P Egri & Sally Stewart & Robert H Terpstra & Yu Kaicheng, 1999. "Doing Business in the 21st Century with the New Generation of Chinese Managers: A Study of Generational Shifts in Work Values in China," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 30(2), pages 415-427, June.
    10. Tim Andrews & Nartnalin Chompusri, 2005. "Temporal Dynamics of Crossvergence: Institutionalizing MNC Integration Strategies in Post-Crisis ASEAN," Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Springer, vol. 22(1), pages 5-22, January.
    11. Ralston, David A. & Hallinger, Philip & Egri, Carolyn P. & Naothinsuhk, Subhatra, 2005. "The effects of culture and life stage on workplace strategies of upward influence: A comparison of Thailand and the United States," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 40(3), pages 321-337, August.
    12. David A. Ralston & James Pounder & Carlos W.H. Lo & Yim-Yu Wong & Carolyn P. Egri & Joseph Stauffer, 2006. "Stability and Change in Managerial Work Values: A Longitudinal Study of China, Hong Kong, and the U.S," Management and Organization Review, International Association of Chinese Management Research, vol. 2(1), pages 67-94, March.
    13. Maureen Ambrose & Anke Arnaud & Marshall Schminke, 2008. "Individual Moral Development and Ethical Climate: The Influence of Person–Organization Fit on Job Attitudes," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 77(3), pages 323-333, February.
    14. David A Ralston & Carolyn P Egri & Mar�a Teresa de la Garza Carranza & Prem Ramburuth & Jane Terpstra-Tong & Andre A Pekerti & Ilya Girson & Harald Herrig & Marina Dabic & Moureen Tang & Paulina Wan, 2009. "Ethical preferences for influencing superiors: A 41-society study," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 40(6), pages 1022-1045, August.
    15. Rosalie L Tung, 2008. "The cross-cultural research imperative: the need to balance cross-national and intra-national diversity," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 39(1), pages 41-46, January.
    16. Kelley, Lane & MacNab, Brent & Worthley, Reginald, 2006. "Crossvergence and cultural tendencies: A longitudinal test of the Hong Kong, Taiwan and United States banking sectors," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 67-84, March.
    17. Ping Ping Fu & Jeff Kennedy & Jasmine Tata & Gary Yukl & Michael Harris Bond & Tai-Kuang Peng & Ekkirala S Srinivas & Jon P Howell & Leonel Prieto & Paul Koopman & Jaap J Boonstra & Selda Pasa & Marie, 2004. "The impact of societal cultural values and individual social beliefs on the perceived effectiveness of managerial influence strategies: a meso approach," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 35(4), pages 284-305, July.
    18. Egri, Carolyn P. & Ralston, David A. & Murray, Cheryl S. & Nicholson, Joel D., 2000. "Managers in the NAFTA countries: A cross-cultural comparison of attitudes toward upward influence strategies," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 6(2), pages 149-171.
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    Cited by:
    1. Delerue, Hélène & Lejeune, Albert, 2011. "Managerial secrecy and intellectual asset protection in SMEs: The role of institutional environment," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 130-142, June.
    2. Egri, Carolyn P. & Khilji, Shaista E. & Ralston, David A. & Palmer, Ian & Girson, Ilya & Milton, Laurie & Richards, Malika & Ramburuth, Prem & Mockaitis, Audra, 2012. "Do Anglo countries still form a values cluster? Evidence of the complexity of value change," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 47(2), pages 267-276.

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