Customer-class pricing, parallel trade and the optimal number of market segments
AbstractWe consider the optimal market segmentation problem of a monopolist that faces a continuum of customers when it is costly to prevent resale (or parallel trade) among groups. In our framework, the monopolist chooses the number k≥1 of market segments, but also their design and the discriminatory prices. All these quantities are chosen to maximize the total profit. We solve the profit maximization problem when demands are linear and parallel as a function of the cost of separating markets. We show that market segmentation and prices cannot be chosen independently, and we also show that it is optimal to create only a few market segments. We then turn to the welfare analysis and show that the socially optimal number of market segment is equal to three.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Elsevier in its journal International Journal of Industrial Organization.
Volume (Year): 30 (2012)
Issue (Month): 6 ()
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/505551
Monopoly; Third-degree price discrimination; Endogenous market segmentation; Parallel trade;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- D42 - Microeconomics - - Market Structure and Pricing - - - Monopoly
- L11 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Production, Pricing, and Market Structure; Size Distribution of Firms
- L50 - Industrial Organization - - Regulation and Industrial Policy - - - General
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Myers, Matthew B. & Griffith, David A., 1999. "Strategies for combating gray market activity," Business Horizons, Elsevier, vol. 42(6), pages 2-8.
- K. Sridhar Moorthy, 1984. "Market Segmentation, Self-Selection, and Product Line Design," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 3(4), pages 288-307.
- Kilkenny, Maureen & Thisse, Jacques, 1999. "The Economics of Location: A Selective Survey," Staff General Research Papers 1693, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
- Nancy T. Gallini & Aidan Hollis, 1996.
"A Contractual Approach to the Gray Market,"
gallini-96-01, University of Toronto, Department of Economics.
- Shantanu Dutta & Mark Bergen & George John, 1994. "The Governance of Exclusive Territories When Dealers can Bootleg," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 13(1), pages 83-99.
- K. Sridhar Moorthy & I. P. L. Png, 1992. "Market Segmentation, Cannibalization, and the Timing of Product Introductions," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 38(3), pages 345-359, March.
- Malueg, David A. & Schwartz, Marius, 1994.
"Parallel imports, demand dispersion, and international price discrimination,"
Journal of International Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 37(3-4), pages 167-195, November.
- Malueg, D.A. & Schwartz, M., 1993. "Parallel Imports, Demand Dispersion and International Price Discrimination," Papers 93-6, U.S. Department of Justice - Antitrust Division.
- Pinelopi Koujianou Goldberg & Frank Verboven, 1998.
"The Evolution of Price Dispersion in the European Car Market,"
NBER Working Papers
6818, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Goldberg, Pinelopi Koujianou & Verboven, Frank, 2001. "The Evolution of Price Dispersion in the European Car Market," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 68(4), pages 811-48, October.
- Goldberg, Pinelopi Koujianou & Verboven, Frank, 1998. "The Evolution of Price Dispersion in the European Car Market," CEPR Discussion Papers 2029, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Hartwick, John M., 1978.
"Optimal price discrimination,"
Journal of Public Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 83-89, February.
- Schmalensee, Richard, 1981.
"Output and Welfare Implications of Monopolistic Third-Degree Price Discrimination,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 71(1), pages 242-47, March.
- Schmalensee, Richard., 1980. "Output and welfare implications of monopolistic third-degree price discrimination," Working papers 1095-80., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
- ANDERSON, Simon P. & GINSBURGH, Victor A., .
"International pricing with costly consumer arbitrage,"
CORE Discussion Papers RP
-1373, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
- Anderson, Simon P & Ginsburgh, Victor A, 1999. "International Pricing with Costly Consumer Arbitrage," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 7(1), pages 126-39, February.
- Phlips, Louis, 1988. " Price Discrimination: A Survey of the Theory," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 2(2), pages 135-67.
- Szymanski, Stefan & Valletti, Tommaso, 2005.
"Parallel Trade, International Exhaustion and Intellectual Property Rights: A Welfare Analysis,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
5022, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Tommaso Valletti & Stefan Szymanski, 2006. "Parallel Trade, International Exhaustion and Intellectual Property Rights: A Welfare Analysis," CEIS Research Paper 75, Tor Vergata University, CEIS.
- Eitan Gerstner & Duncan Holthausen, 1986. "Profitable Pricing When Market Segments Overlap," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 5(1), pages 55-69.
- Raymond J. Deneckere & R. Preston McAfee, 1996.
Journal of Economics & Management Strategy,
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 5(2), pages 149-174, 06.
- Le Grand, Julian, 1975. "Public Price Discrimination and Aid to Low Income Groups," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 42(165), pages 32-42, February.
- Patricia Danzon, 1997. "Price Discrimination for Pharmaceuticals: Welfare Effects in the US and the EU," International Journal of the Economics of Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 4(3), pages 301-322.
- Jaskold Gabszewicz, Jean & Shaked, Avner & Sutton, John & Thisse, Jacques-Francois, 1986.
"Segmenting the market: The monopolist's optimal product mix,"
Journal of Economic Theory,
Elsevier, vol. 39(2), pages 273-289, August.
- GABSZEWICZ, Jean J. & SHAKED, Avner & SUTTON, John & THISSE, Jacques-François, . "Segmenting the market: the monopolist's optimal product mix," CORE Discussion Papers RP -707, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
- Keith E. Maskus, 2000. "Parallel Imports," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 23(9), pages 1269-1284, 09.
- Reza Ahmadi & B. Rachel Yang, 2000. "Parallel Imports: Challenges from Unauthorized Distribution Channels," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 19(3), pages 279-294, March.
- Michel Breton & Shlomo Weber, 2005. "Stable partitions in a model with group-dependent feasible sets," Economic Theory, Springer, vol. 25(1), pages 187-201, 01.
- Varian, Hal R, 1985. "Price Discrimination and Social Welfare," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 75(4), pages 870-75, September.
- Steinberg, Richard & Weisbrod, Burton A., 2005. "Nonprofits with distributional objectives: price discrimination and corner solutions," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 89(11-12), pages 2205-2230, December.
- Clerides, Sofronis K., 2002. "Book value: intertemporal pricing and quality discrimination in the US market for books," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 20(10), pages 1385-1408, December.
- Stole, Lars A., 2007. "Price Discrimination and Competition," Handbook of Industrial Organization, Elsevier.
- Victor Kaftal & Debashis Pal, 2008. "Third Degree Price Discrimination in Linear-Demand Markets: Effects on Number of Markets Served and Social Welfare," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 75(2), pages 558-573, October.
- Michael Zhang & Peter C. Bell, 2010. "Fencing in the context of revenue management," International Journal of Revenue Management, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 4(1), pages 42-68.
- Yann Braouezec, 2013. "The Welfare Effects of Regulating the Number of Market Segments," Working Papers 2013-ECO-11, IESEG School of Management.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.