Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login

Cultural distance, political risk, or governance quality? Towards a more accurate conceptualization and measurement of external uncertainty in foreign entry mode research

Contents:

Author Info

  • Slangen, Arjen H.L.
  • van Tulder, Rob J.M.
Registered author(s):

    Abstract

    It is well accepted that multinational enterprises (MNEs) prefer equity joint ventures (JVs) over wholly owned subsidiaries (WOSs) in foreign countries where the formal and informal external environment is highly uncertain. Many entry mode studies have modeled the external uncertainty faced by MNEs in foreign countries as the cultural distance to these countries (thus focusing on the informal environment), or as their political risk level (thus focusing on the formal environment). We argue that both approaches are suboptimal because (1) cultural distance not only reflects the external uncertainty associated with WOSs but also the internal uncertainty associated with JVs, and (2) political risk covers only one aspect of the formal external environment. We contend that the governance quality of foreign countries is a better proxy for external uncertainty. The lower this quality, we hypothesize, the higher the likelihood that MNEs will choose JVs over WOSs. An analysis of 231 entries by Dutch MNEs into 48 countries offers support for this hypothesis. We also find that cultural distance has no impact on entry mode choice and that political risk has the weakest impact of all aspects of governance quality.

    Download Info

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0969593109000171
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.

    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal International Business Review.

    Volume (Year): 18 (2009)
    Issue (Month): 3 (June)
    Pages: 276-291

    as in new window
    Handle: RePEc:eee:iburev:v:18:y:2009:i:3:p:276-291

    Contact details of provider:
    Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/133/description#description

    Order Information:
    Postal: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/133/bibliographic
    Web: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/133/bibliographic

    Related research

    Keywords: Cultural distance Entry mode choice Governance quality Joint venture Political risk Wholly owned subsidiary;

    References

    References listed on IDEAS
    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
    as in new window
    1. Hennart, J.-F.M.A., 1991. "The transaction costs theory of joint ventures : an empirical study of Japanese subsidiaries in the United States," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-175820, Tilburg University.
    2. W Chan Kim & Peter Hwang, 1992. "Global Strategy and Multinationals' Entry Mode Choice," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 23(1), pages 29-53, March.
    3. Drogendijk, Rian & Slangen, Arjen, 2006. "Hofstede, Schwartz, or managerial perceptions? The effects of different cultural distance measures on establishment mode choices by multinational enterprises," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 15(4), pages 361-380, August.
    4. Cho, Kang Rae & Padmanabhan, Prasad, 2005. "Revisiting the role of cultural distance in MNC's foreign ownership mode choice: the moderating effect of experience attributes," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 307-324, June.
    5. Oded Shenkar, 2001. "Cultural Distance Revisited: Towards a More Rigorous Conceptualization and Measurement of Cultural Differences," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 32(3), pages 519-535, September.
    6. Stephen J Kobrin & John Basek & Stephen Blank & Joseph La Palombara, 1980. "The Assessment and Evaluation of Noneconomic Environments by American Firms: A Preliminary Report," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 11(1), pages 32-47, March.
    7. Henisz, Witold J, 2000. "The Institutional Environment for Multinational Investment," Journal of Law, Economics and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 16(2), pages 334-64, October.
    8. Yadong Luo, 2001. "Determinants of Entry in an Emerging Economy: A Multilevel Approach," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 38(3), pages 443-472, 05.
    9. Shih-Fen S Chen, 2008. "The motives for international acquisitions: capability procurements, strategic considerations, and the role of ownership structures," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 39(3), pages 454-471, April.
    10. Steven Globerman & Daniel Shapiro, 2003. "Governance infrastructure and US foreign direct investment," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 34(1), pages 19-39, January.
    11. Chen, Haiyang & Hu, Michael Y., 2002. "An analysis of determinants of entry mode and its impact on performance," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 11(2), pages 193-210, April.
    12. Benjamin Gomes-Casseres, 1990. "Firm Ownership Preferences and Host Government Restrictions: An Integrated Approach," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 21(1), pages 1-22, March.
    13. Sanjeev Agarwal & Sridhar N Ramaswami, 1992. "Choice of Foreign Market Entry Mode: Impact of Ownership, Location and Internationalization Factors," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 23(1), pages 1-27, March.
    14. Piero Morosini & Scott Shane & Harbir Singh, 1998. "National Cultural Distance and Cross-Border Acquisition Performance," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 29(1), pages 137-158, March.
    15. Erin Anderson & Hubert Gatignon, 1986. "Modes of Foreign Entry: A Transaction Cost Analysis and Propositions," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 17(3), pages 1-26, September.
    16. Desislava Dikova & Arjen van Witteloostuijn, 2007. "Foreign direct investment mode choice: entry and establishment modes in transition economies," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 38(6), pages 1013-1033, November.
    17. Jean-Fran�ois Hennart & Jorma Larimo, 1998. "The Impact of Culture on the Strategy of Multinational Enterprises: Does National Origin Affect Ownership Decisions?," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 29(3), pages 515-538, September.
    18. Prasad Padmanabhan & Kang Rae Cho, 1999. "Decision Specific Experience in Foreign Ownership and Establishment Strategies: Evidence from Japanese Firms," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 30(1), pages 25-41, March.
    19. John Hagedoorn & Danielle Cloodt & Hans van Kranenburg, 2005. "Intellectual property rights and the governance of international R&D partnerships," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 36(2), pages 175-186, March.
    20. Bruce Kogut & Harbir Singh, 1988. "The Effect of National Culture on the Choice of Entry Mode," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 19(3), pages 411-432, September.
    21. Kent D Miller, 1992. "A Framework for Integrated Risk Management in International Business," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 23(2), pages 311-331, June.
    22. Stephen J Kobrin, 1976. "The Environmental Determinants of Foreign Direct Manufacturing Investment: An Ex Post Empirical Analysis," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 7(2), pages 29-42, June.
    23. Slangen, Arjen H.L., 2006. "National cultural distance and initial foreign acquisition performance: The moderating effect of integration," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 41(2), pages 161-170, June.
    24. Amemiya, Takeshi, 1981. "Qualitative Response Models: A Survey," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 19(4), pages 1483-1536, December.
    25. Jean-Fran�ois Hennart & Ming Zeng, 2002. "Cross-Cultural Differences and Joint Venture Longevity," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 33(4), pages 699-716, December.
    26. Yadong Luo, 2005. "Transactional characteristics, institutional environment and joint venture contracts," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 36(2), pages 209-230, March.
    27. Benito, Gabriel R.G. & Tomassen, Sverre & Bonache-Pérez, Jaime & Pla-Barber, José, 2005. "A transaction cost analysis of staffing decisions in international operations," Scandinavian Journal of Management, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 101-126, March.
    28. Keith D Brouthers & Lance Eliot Brouthers, 2001. "Explaining the National Cultural Distance Paradox," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 32(1), pages 177-189, March.
    29. Harry G Barkema & Freek Vermeulen, 1997. "What Differences in the Cultural Backgrounds of Partners Are Detrimental for International Joint Ventures?," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 28(4), pages 845-864, December.
    30. Gomes-Casseres, Benjamin, 1989. "Ownership structures of foreign subsidiaries : Theory and evidence," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 1-25, January.
    31. Shih-Fen S Chen & Jean-Francois Hennart, 2002. "Japanese Investors' Choice of Joint Ventures Versus Wholly-owned Subsidiaries in the US: The Role of Market Barriers and Firm Capabilities," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 33(1), pages 1-18, March.
    32. Bruce Kogut, 1991. "Joint Ventures and the Option to Expand and Acquire," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 37(1), pages 19-33, January.
    33. Jaideep Anand & Andrew Delios, 1997. "Location Specificity and the Transferability of Downstream Assets to Foreign Subsidiaries," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 28(3), pages 579-603, September.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as in new window

    Cited by:
    1. von Eije, Henk & Wiegerinck, Hélène, 2010. "Shareholders' reactions to announcements of acquisitions of private firms: Do target and bidder markets make a difference?," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 360-377, August.
    2. Tseng, Chiung-Hui & Lee, Ruby P., 2010. "Host environmental uncertainty and equity-based entry mode dilemma: The role of market linking capability," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 407-418, August.
    3. Bowe, Michael & Golesorkhi, Sougand & Yamin, Mo, 2014. "Explaining equity shares in international joint ventures: Combining the influence of asset characteristics, culture and institutional differences," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 212-233.
    4. Marlene Grande & Aurora A. C. Teixeira, 2011. "Linking entry mode choices of MNCs with countries’ corruption. A review," OBEGEF Working Papers 008, OBEGEF - Observatório de Economia e Gestão de Fraude & OBEGEF Working Papers on Fraud and Corruption.
    5. Jiménez, Alfredo, 2010. "Does political risk affect the scope of the expansion abroad? Evidence from Spanish MNEs," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 19(6), pages 619-633, December.
    6. Shieh, Bih-Lian & Wu, Tzong-Chen, 2012. "Equity-based entry modes of the Greater Chinese Economic Area's foreign direct investments in Vietnam," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 21(3), pages 508-517.

    Lists

    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:iburev:v:18:y:2009:i:3:p:276-291. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei).

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.