The measurement of the energy intensity of manufacturing industries: a principal components analysis
AbstractEnergy intensity is the ratio of energy use to output. Most industries deal with several energy sources and outputs. This leads to the usual difficulties of aggregating heterogeneous inputs and outputs. We apply principal components analysis to assess the information derived from six energy intensity indicators. We use two measures of total energy use (thermal and economic) and three measures of industry output (value added, value of production, and value of shipments). The data comes from manufacturing industries in QuÃ©bec, Ontario, Alberta, and British Columbia from 1976 to 1996. We find that the variation of the six energy intensity indicators that is accounted for by the first principal component is quite large. However, depending on how variables are measured, there may be significant differences in the assessment of the evolution of energy intensity for some industries. There are no particular patterns in this respect. This makes identifying benchmarks that could be used to assess future performance difficult.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Elsevier in its journal Energy Policy.
Volume (Year): 33 (2005)
Issue (Month): 2 (January)
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/enpol
Other versions of this item:
- Bernard, Jean-Thomas & Cote, Bruno, 2002. "The Measurement of the Energy Intensity of Manufacturing Industries: A Principal Components Analysis," Discussion Papers dp-02-31, Resources For the Future.
- Q40 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - General
- C43 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics - - - Index Numbers and Aggregation
- L60 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Manufacturing - - - General
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Patterson, Murray G, 1996. "What is energy efficiency? : Concepts, indicators and methodological issues," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 24(5), pages 377-390, May.
- Freeman, Scott L. & Niefer, Mark J. & Roop, Joseph M., 1997. "Measuring industrial energy intensity: practical issues and problems," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 25(7-9), pages 703-714.
- Burtraw, Dallas & Palmer, Karen & Bharvirkar, Ranjit & Paul, Anthony, 2001. "The Effect of Allowance Allocation on the Cost of Carbon Emission Trading," Discussion Papers dp-01-30-, Resources For the Future.
- Jean-Thomas Bernard & Pierre Cauchon, 1987. "Thermal and Economic Measures of Energy Use: Differences and Implications," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 2), pages 125-135.
- Jay Zarnikau, 1999. "A Note: Will Tomorrow's Energy Efficiency Indices Prove Useful in Economic Studies?," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 3), pages 139-145.
- Azadeh, A. & Amalnick, M.S. & Ghaderi, S.F. & Asadzadeh, S.M., 2007. "An integrated DEA PCA numerical taxonomy approach for energy efficiency assessment and consumption optimization in energy intensive manufacturing sectors," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(7), pages 3792-3806, July.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.