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Locational price spreads and the pricing of contracts for difference: Evidence from the Nordic market

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  • Marckhoff, Jan
  • Wimschulte, Jens
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    Abstract

    In electricity markets, not only does the risk of substantial price variations over time exist, but so does the risk of price variations over space, as prices between locations can differ due to transmission congestion. To manage this risk, Contracts for Difference (CfDs), i.e., forwards on the spread between a particular area price and the (unconstrained) system price, were introduced at the Scandinavian electricity exchange Nord Pool at the end of 2000. We empirically investigate the pricing of these CfDs over the period 2001 through 2006 and find that CfD prices contain significant risk premia. Their sign and magnitude, however, differ substantially between areas and delivery periods, because areas are subject to transmission congestion to a varying extent. While the relation between risk premia and time-to-maturity is not uniform for CfDs, there is a negative relation for implied area and system forwards, which can be explained by the relative hedging demand of market participants. In addition, we find that risk premia of CfDs and implied area forwards vary systematically with the variance and skewness of the underlying spot prices. This confirms both implications of the Bessembinder and Lemmon [Bessembinder, H., Lemmon, M.L., 2002. Equilibrium pricing and optimal hedging in electricity forward markets. Journal of Finance, 57, 1347-1382] model.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Energy Economics.

    Volume (Year): 31 (2009)
    Issue (Month): 2 (March)
    Pages: 257-268

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:eneeco:v:31:y:2009:i:2:p:257-268

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    Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/eneco

    Related research

    Keywords: Electricity Contract for Difference Implied area forward Risk premium;

    References

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    1. Worthington, Andrew & Kay-Spratley, Adam & Higgs, Helen, 2005. "Transmission of prices and price volatility in Australian electricity spot markets: a multivariate GARCH analysis," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 337-350, March.
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    12. Kristiansen, T., 2004. "Pricing of Contracts for Difference in the Nordic market," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(9), pages 1075-1085, June.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:
    1. Frestad, Dennis, 2012. "Liquidity and dirty hedging in the Nordic electricity market," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(5), pages 1341-1355.
    2. Chi-Keung Woo, Ira Horowitz, Brian Horii, Ren Orans, and Jay Zarnikau, 2012. "Blowing in the Wind: Vanishing Payoffs of a Tolling Agreement for Natural-gas-fired Generation of Electricity in Texas," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 1).
    3. Frestad, Dennis, 2010. "Corporate hedging under a resource rent tax regime," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 458-468, March.
    4. Pietz, Matthäus, 2009. "Risk premia in the German electricity futures market," CEFS Working Paper Series 2009-07, Center for Entrepreneurial and Financial Studies (CEFS), Technische Universität München.
    5. Pietz, Matthäus, 2009. "Risk premia in electricity wholesale spot markets: empirical evidence from Germany," CEFS Working Paper Series 2009-11, Center for Entrepreneurial and Financial Studies (CEFS), Technische Universität München.
    6. Cartea, Álvaro & González-Pedraz, Carlos, 2012. "How much should we pay for interconnecting electricity markets? A real options approach," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 14-30.
    7. Woo, C.K. & Zarnikau, J. & Moore, J. & Horowitz, I., 2011. "Wind generation and zonal-market price divergence: Evidence from Texas," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(7), pages 3928-3938, July.
    8. Lindström, Erik & Regland, Fredrik, 2012. "Modeling extreme dependence between European electricity markets," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(4), pages 899-904.
    9. Egil Ferkingstad & Anders L{\o}land, 2014. "Coping with area price risk in electricity markets: Forecasting Contracts for Difference in the Nordic power market," Papers 1406.6862, arXiv.org.
    10. Ferkingstad, Egil & Løland, Anders & Wilhelmsen, Mathilde, 2011. "Causal modeling and inference for electricity markets," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 404-412, May.

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