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Are global warming and economic growth compatible? Evidence from five OPEC countries?

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  • Sari, Ramazan
  • Soytas, Ugur

Abstract

In this paper, we investigate the relationship between carbon emissions, income, energy and total employment in selected OPEC countries for the period of 1971-2002. We mainly focus on the link between energy use and income. Employing the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach, we find that there is a cointegrating relationship between the variables in Saudi Arabia only. The long run forcing variables for income are determined to be employment and energy for Saudi Arabia. In Indonesia, Algeria, Nigeria, and Venezuela, there is no cointegration between income and energy. Secondly we question the long run Granger causality between carbon emissions, energy use, and income. Our results suggest that none of the countries need to sacrifice economic growth to decrease their emission levels. Indonesia and Nigeria may contribute to emissions reduction via energy conservation without negative long run effects on economic growth.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Applied Energy.

Volume (Year): 86 (2009)
Issue (Month): 10 (October)
Pages: 1887-1893

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Handle: RePEc:eee:appene:v:86:y:2009:i:10:p:1887-1893

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Keywords: Autoregressive distributed lag OPEC Cointegration Energy CO2;

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References

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Cited by:
  1. Jafari, Yaghoob & Othman, Jamal & Nor, Abu Hassan Shaari Mohd, 2012. "Energy consumption, economic growth and environmental pollutants in Indonesia," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 34(6), pages 879-889.
  2. Feng, Zhuo & Zhang, Shui-Bo & Gao, Ying, 2014. "On oil investment and production: A comparison of production sharing contracts and buyback contracts," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 395-402.
  3. Apergis, Nicholas & Payne, James E., 2010. "The emissions, energy consumption, and growth nexus: Evidence from the commonwealth of independent states," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 650-655, January.
  4. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Salah Uddin, Gazi & Ur Rehman, Ijaz & Imran, Kashif, 2014. "Industrialization, electricity consumption and CO2 emissions in Bangladesh," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 575-586.
  5. Menyah, Kojo & Wolde-Rufael, Yemane, 2010. "Energy consumption, pollutant emissions and economic growth in South Africa," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(6), pages 1374-1382, November.
  6. Apergis, Nicholas & Payne, James E. & Menyah, Kojo & Wolde-Rufael, Yemane, 2010. "On the causal dynamics between emissions, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and economic growth," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(11), pages 2255-2260, September.
  7. Shanthini, Rajaratnam, 2007. "Fossil fuel based CO2 emissions, economic growth, and world crude oil price nexus in the United States," MPRA Paper 29574, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 19 Feb 2011.
  8. Chandran, V.G.R. & Sharma, Susan & Madhavan, Karunagaran, 2010. "Electricity consumption-growth nexus: The case of Malaysia," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 606-612, January.
  9. Assaf, A. George & Barros, Carlos Pestana & Managi, Shunsuke, 2011. "Cost efficiency of Japanese steam power generation companies: A Bayesian comparison of random and fixed frontier models," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 88(4), pages 1441-1446, April.
  10. Wang, Kuan-Min, 2012. "Modelling the nonlinear relationship between CO2 emissions from oil and economic growth," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 29(5), pages 1537-1547.
  11. Bruns, Stephan B. & Gross, Christian & Stern, David I., 2013. "Is There Really Granger Causality Between Energy Use and Output?," FCN Working Papers 11/2013, E.ON Energy Research Center, Future Energy Consumer Needs and Behavior (FCN).
  12. Lean, Hooi Hooi & Smyth, Russell, 2010. "CO2 emissions, electricity consumption and output in ASEAN," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 87(6), pages 1858-1864, June.
  13. Saboori, Behnaz & Sulaiman, Jamalludin, 2013. "Environmental degradation, economic growth and energy consumption: Evidence of the environmental Kuznets curve in Malaysia," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 892-905.
  14. Apergis, Nicholas & Payne, James E., 2010. "The causal dynamics between coal consumption and growth: Evidence from emerging market economies," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 87(6), pages 1972-1977, June.
  15. Ghosh, Sajal, 2010. "Examining carbon emissions economic growth nexus for India: A multivariate cointegration approach," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(6), pages 3008-3014, June.
  16. AROURI, Mohamed El Hedi & BEN YOUSSEF, Adel & M'HENNI, Hatem & Rault, Christophe, 2012. "Empirical Analysis of The EKC Hypothesis for Sulfur Dioxide Emissions in Selected Middle East and North African Countries," MPRA Paper 46185, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2012.
  17. Jalal Dehnavi & Amin Haghnejad, 2012. "Energy Consumption, Economic Growth, And Pollution In Selected Opec Countries: Testing The Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis," Journal of Academic Research in Economics, Spiru Haret University, Faculty of Accounting and Financial Management Constanta, vol. 4(2 (July)), pages 149-166.
  18. Chang, Tzu-Pu & Hu, Jin-Li, 2010. "Total-factor energy productivity growth, technical progress, and efficiency change: An empirical study of China," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 87(10), pages 3262-3270, October.

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