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A Dynamic Analysis of Fairness in Global Warming Policy: Kyoto, Buenos Aires, and Beyond

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In December 1997, 34 industrialized countries signed the Kyoto Protocol committing to targets and timetables to reduce 6 greenhouse gases (GHGs). Why were the only signatories industrialized countries? Two reasons are usually put forth. The first is pragmatism, in that only this group, as opposed to developing countries, can afford the costs of mitigating GHGs. Still, this explanation is imperfect since 12 of the signatories are transitional economies of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. The second reason is fairness, in that industrialized countries are responsible for the vast majority of the GHGs already built-up in the atmosphere and are responsible for over 60% of the current emissions. The fairness explanation is further supported by the fact that "differentiation" was invoked in Kyoto, i.e., not all signatories agreed to equal cutbacks, several citing special economic circumstances. In the future, both pragmatism and fairness will be relevant to the question of when and how developing countries will sign a global GHG agreement. Another major influence will be the pursuit of economic efficiency or, at least, cost-effectiveness, i.e., making sure that the targets are met at the lowest global cost. This can be fine-tuned in future agreements by the use of incentive-based instruments and the timing of commitments. Efficiency may also be affected by relative burden-sharing, since this will influence the number of countries that make mitigation commitments in the future. The purpose of this paper is to analyze fairness, or equity, aspects of the current Kyoto Protocol and its extension to a truly global agreement that includes developing countries. This is done in the context of a policy approach gaining increasing favor - tradeable emission permits. A dynamic model of intercountry CO2 permit trading is used to address the following questions: 1) To what extent does permit trading lower global CO2 mitigation costs? 2) How are intercountry welfare impacts influenced by alternative permit distributions according to various equity criteria? 3) How might developing countries be brought into the agreement without requiring CO2 reductions, yet promoting global efficiency gains by utilizing their relatively lower cost mitigation capabilities? 4) To what extent does allowing for permit trading over time further lower global mitigation costs? 5) How are intercountry welfare impacts distinguished by not just static definitions of equity but also dynamic versions, such as sustainability criteria?

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Article provided by Universidad del CEMA in its journal Journal of Applied Economics.

Volume (Year): I (1998)
Issue (Month): (November)
Pages: 329-362

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Handle: RePEc:cem:jaecon:v:1:y:1998:n:2:p:329-362

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  1. Nordhaus, William D & Yang, Zili, 1996. "A Regional Dynamic General-Equilibrium Model of Alternative Climate-Change Strategies," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 86(4), pages 741-65, September.
  2. William R. Cline, 1992. "Economics of Global Warming, The," Peterson Institute Press: All Books, Peterson Institute for International Economics, Peterson Institute for International Economics, number 39, July.
  3. Adam Rose & Brandt Stevens & Jae Edmonds & Marshall Wise, 1998. "International Equity and Differentiation in Global Warming Policy," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 12(1), pages 25-51, July.
  4. Rose, Adam & Stevens, Brandt, 1993. "The efficiency and equity of marketable permits for CO2 emissions," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 117-146, March.
  5. Stephen C Peck & Thomas J. Teisberg, 1992. "CETA: A Model for Carbon Emissions Trajectory Assessment," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 1), pages 55-78.
  6. Halsnaes, Kirsten, 1996. "The economics of climate change mitigation in developing countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 24(10-11), pages 917-926.
  7. Eyckmans, Johan & Proost, Stef & Schokkaert, Erik, 1993. "Efficiency and Distribution in Greenhouse Negotiations," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 46(3), pages 363-97.
  8. Larsen, Bjorn & Shah, Anwar, 1994. "Global Tradeable Carbon Permits, Participation Incentives, and Transfers," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, Oxford University Press, vol. 46(0), pages 841-56, Supplemen.
  9. Samuel Fankhauser, 1994. "The Social Costs of Greenhouse Gas Emissions: An Expected Value Approach," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 2), pages 157-184.
  10. Stevens, Brandt & Rose, Adam, 2002. "A Dynamic Analysis of the Marketable Permits Approach to Global Warming Policy: A Comparison of Spatial and Temporal Flexibility," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 44(1), pages 45-69, July.
  11. Edmonds, Jae & Wise, Marshall & Barns, David W, 1995. "Carbon coalitions : The cost and effectiveness of energy agreements to alter trajectories of atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions," Energy Policy, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 23(4-5), pages 309-335.
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Cited by:
  1. Kohn, Robert E., 2001. "Unilateral transfer of abatement capital," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 85-95, April.
  2. Weidner, Helmut, 2005. "Global equity versus public interest? The case of climate change policy in Germany," Discussion Papers, Research Unit: Civil Society and Transnational Networks, Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB) SP IV 2005-102, Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB).
  3. Gary E. Bolton & Axel Ockenfels, 2004. "The Behavioral Tradeoff between Efficiency and Equity when a Majority Rules," Papers on Strategic Interaction, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Strategic Interaction Group 2003-12, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Strategic Interaction Group.
  4. Johan Eyckmans & Michael Finus, 2007. "Measures to enhance the success of global climate treaties," International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, Springer, Springer, vol. 7(1), pages 73-97, March.
  5. Adam Rose & Brandt Stevens, 2001. "An Economic Analysis of Flexible Permit Trading in the Kyoto Protocol," International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, Springer, Springer, vol. 1(2), pages 219-242, April.

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