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Research and development: financial constraints and the role of public funding for small and medium-sized enterprises

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  • Czarnitzki, Dirk

Abstract

This paper presents microeconometric evidence on financing con-traints for research and development activities in German small and medium?sized firms (SME). Special attention is paid to the role of public R&D subsidies. For this purpose SME in Western and East-ern Germany are compared because these regions are very different in their supply of public R&D funding. It turns out that Western German SME are financially constrained in their R&D activities by both internal and external resources. In Eastern Germany, firms are not sensitive to external constraints, possibly due to high public R&D subsidies. The results suggest that R&D in Eastern Germany is to a large extent driven by public subsidies since the German re?unification in 1990 and that the usual financial market mechanisms are repealed with respect to R&D in this region.

Suggested Citation

  • Czarnitzki, Dirk, 2002. "Research and development: financial constraints and the role of public funding for small and medium-sized enterprises," ZEW Discussion Papers 02-74, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:zewdip:531
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Bronwyn Hall, 2004. "The financing of research and development," Chapters,in: Financial Systems, Corporate Investment in Innovation, and Venture Capital, chapter 2 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    2. Steven M. Fazzari & R. Glenn Hubbard & Bruce C. Petersen, 2000. "Investment-Cash Flow Sensitivities are Useful: A Comment on Kaplan and Zingales," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 115(2), pages 695-705.
    3. Steven N. Kaplan & Luigi Zingales, 2000. "Investment-Cash Flow Sensitivities Are Not Valid Measures of Financing Constraints," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 115(2), pages 707-712.
    4. Steven M. Fazzari & R. Glenn Hubbard & Bruce C. Petersen, 1988. "Financing Constraints and Corporate Investment," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 19(1), pages 141-206.
    5. Dietmar Harhoff, 1998. "Are there Financing Constraints for R&D and Investment in German Manufacturing Firms," Annals of Economics and Statistics, GENES, issue 49-50, pages 421-456.
    6. Richard C. Levin & Alvin K. Klevorick & Richard R. Nelson & Sidney G. Winter, 1987. "Appropriating the Returns from Industrial Research and Development," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 18(3, Specia), pages 783-832.
    7. Gourieroux,Christian, 2000. "Econometrics of Qualitative Dependent Variables," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521589857, December.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Czarnitzki, Dirk & Kraft, Kornelius, 2009. "Capital control, debt financing and innovative activity," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 71(2), pages 372-383, August.
    2. Czarnitzki, Dirk & Licht, Georg, 2004. "Die Rolle der Innovationsförderung im Aufholprozess Ostdeutschlands," ZEW Discussion Papers 04-68, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    3. Aerts, Kris & Czarnitzki, Dirk, 2004. "Using Innovation Survey Data to Evaluate R&D Policy: The Case of Belgium," ZEW Discussion Papers 04-55, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    4. Frondel, Manuel & Horbach, Jens & Rennings, Klaus, 2004. "End-of-Pipe or Cleaner Production? An Empirical Comparison of Environmental Innovation Decisions Across OECD Countries," ZEW Discussion Papers 04-82, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    5. Czarnitzki, Dirk & Hanel, Petr & Rosa, Julio Miguel, 2011. "Evaluating the impact of R&D tax credits on innovation: A microeconometric study on Canadian firms," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 40(2), pages 217-229, March.
    6. Aboal, Diego & Garda, Paula, 2015. "Does public financial support stimulate innovation and productivity? An impact evaluation," Revista CEPAL, Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL), April.
    7. Gustavo A. Crespi & Alessandro Maffioli & Pierre Mohnen & Gonzalo Vázquez, 2011. "Evaluating the Impact of Science, Technology and Innovation Programs: a Methodological Toolkit," SPD Working Papers 1104, Inter-American Development Bank, Office of Strategic Planning and Development Effectiveness (SPD).
    8. Alessandra Catozzella & Marco Vivarelli, 2011. "Assessing the Impact of Public Support on Innovative Productivity," DISCE - Quaderni del Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Sociali dises1177, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Dipartimenti e Istituti di Scienze Economiche (DISCE).
    9. Alessandra Catozzella & Marco Vivarelli, 2012. "The possible adverse impact of innovation subsidies: some evidence from a bivariate switching model," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 32(1), pages 648-661.
    10. Massimo Colombo & Luca Grilli, 2007. "Funding Gaps? Access To Bank Loans By High-Tech Start-Ups," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 29(1), pages 25-46, June.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Research and development; financial constraints; public funding; SME; censored regression models;

    JEL classification:

    • O38 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Government Policy
    • O31 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives
    • C24 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Truncated and Censored Models; Switching Regression Models; Threshold Regression Models

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